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The mission of the Epilepsy Foundation includes accelerating new therapies for people living with epilepsy and seizures. As a reflection of our commitment and as a service to the community we are pleased to provide here the pipeline of epilepsy therapies in various stages of development. We thank all of the individuals and organizations whose efforts are reflected in these seeds of hope. The Epilepsy Foundation makes no claims of accuracy of the following data. Although every effort is made to continuously update this list, some errors are inevitable. Companies or academicians or others who are directly involved with any of the therapies listed here are strongly encouraged to keep us updated by contacting contactus@efa.org of any needed changes.

Phases

Rather than only use the traditional Phase I,II, and III (which can also be ambiguous), we have chosen more meaningful "break points" for epilepsy therapies:

  • Phase O

    Preclinical — Not Yet In Humans

  • Phase I

    First Clinical Use — The Therapy Has Been Tested In A Small Number of Humans (Usually Non-Patient Volunteers)

  • Phase IIa:

    Early Patient Use — A Few Patients With Seizures Have Been Exposed To The Therapy; Small Clinical Trials Are Underway Or Completed

  • Phase IIb

    Critical Proof of Concept — A Large Trial, Suitable As A Registration Study, Has Shown Positive Results (Devices move directly to Phase III

  • Phase III

    Late Clinical Use — The Therapy Is In The Final Stages Of Acquiring All The Data Needed For Registration; Many Patients Have Received the Therapy

  • Registration (R)

    The Therapy Has Been Accepted for Potential Approval by the FDA (Filing Has Been Accepted)

  • Approved and To The Patients (US)

    The Therapy Is Available To Patients In The US

  • Approved and To The Patients (ex-US)

    The Therapy Is Available To Patients outside of the US

When support has been provided by the Epilepsy Foundation (or the former Epilepsy Therapy Project, which is now an initiative of the Epilepsy Foundation), the therapy is listed under the "Phase" column(s) in a darker blue.

When support has been provided by other sources, the therapy is listed under the "Phase" column(s) in a lighter orange.

Sponsors

When support has been provided by the Epilepsy Foundation or its partners, the organization's abbreviated name is listed under the "Sponsors" column.

Categories

In each of the following categories the therapies are listed in alphabetical order, and when available, are linked to more information. The company name or institution associated with each therapy is also provided.

Drugs Company / Institution Sponsors Phase Approval
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Adenosine-Augmentation Therapies (AAT's) for Epilepsy Therapy R.S. Dow Neurobiology Laboratories and Legacy Research Institute ETP, EF, CURE
ADS-4101 Adamas Pharmaceuticals ETP
Alprazolam Alexza Pharmaceuticals
AMP-X-0079 AurimMed Pharma, Inc. EF
antagoNAT Platform OPKO
Asian Herbs for Epilepsy Harvard Medical School ETP
BIS-001 (Huperzine) Biscayne Phramceuticals ETP, EF, MFF
BK Channel Antagonists: Use of for Seizure Prevention; paxilline Carnegie Mellon University ETP, MFF
C-10068 Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
CERC-611 (LY3130481) Cerecor
CPP-115 Catalyst Pharmaceutical Partners
DG (2DG) for the Treatment of Epilepsy NeuroGenomeX, Inc., in collaboration with University of Wisconsin and University of Virginia ETP, EF, MFF
Dynamin: A Target for Novel Anti-epileptic Drugs Children's Medical Research Institute; The University of Sydney; BioLink ETP, FACES, EF
Epidiolex (CBD) University of California, SF; NYU; Mass General; Great Ormond Street Hospital; GW Pharma EF
Galanin Gene Delivery to the Hippocampus for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Asklepios BioPharmaceutical, Inc. ETP, EF
Galanin NAX 810-2 - Galanin Based Therapy for Refractory Epilepsy University of Utah ETP, EF, MFF
Galanin Receptor-2 Based Therapy NeuroAdjuvants, Inc.
Ganaxolone for Treatment in Epilepsy Marinus Pharmaceuticals ETP
Ganaxolone IV for Treatment in Epilepsy Marinus Pharmaceuticals ETP
Ginseng Extracts: Preclinical Evaluation in the Treatment of Seizures Baylor College of Medicine ETP, EF
GWP42006 (CBDV — Cannabidivarin) GW Pharma
Herbal Extracts and Extract-derived Compounds; In Vitro and In Vivo Testing for Treatment of Epilepsy Harvard Medical School ETP, FACES, EF
Levitracetam - Intravenous Administration in Neonates University of San Diego
Magnetonanoparticles for Enhanced Therapy of Epilepsy UCLA School of Medicine ETP, EF
Midazolam, intranasal (USL-261) Upsher-Smith Laboratories
MPP-021 MediProPharma
Naluzotan Proximagen
NPY Gene Transfer in Subjects with Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy* The Ohio State University; Neurologix, Inc. ETP, MFF
NTP-A NeuroTherapeutics; Pharma ETP
P529 (Palomid) Paloma Pharmaceuticals
Propofol hemisuccinate: Pulmonary Delivery for the Control of Intractable Seizures University of California Davis; Epalex ETP, EF
R-PID, S-PID and racemic PID; Second Generation Valproic Acid The Hebrew University of Jerusalem ETP
Selective inhibitors of Nav1.6 for Dravet Syndrome Xenon Pharma
T2000 Taro Pharmaceuticals
T-2007 Taro Pharmaceuticals
Targeting Glycolysis as a New Approach to the Treatment of Epilepsy Baylor College of Medicine ETP, MFF
Tellurium Compounds (AS101 and SAS) with Neuroprotective Activity in Epilepsy Bar Ilan University ETP, EF
Tonabersat Upsher-Smith Laboratories
T-type Calcium Channel Antagonists as Novel AEDS Baylor College of Medicine ETP, MFF, FACES
UCB 0942 UCB, Inc.
VX765 Vertex Pharmaceuticals
YKP3089 SK Life Sciences
ZX008 Zogenix
Enhanced Drug Delivery Company / Institution Sponsors Phase Approval
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Application of Drug Directly to Brain New York University
Carbamazepine, IV Lundbeck
Convection Enhanced Delivery of Anticonvulsant Toxins for the Treatment of Intractable Partial Epilepsy University of California Davis; Medgenesis Therapeutix ETP, EF
GDNF Local Delivery to Brain MedGenesis Therapeutix, Inc.
Diazepam Auto-injector (Vanquix)* King Pharmaceuticals; Pfizer
Diazepam Injection for Emergency Treatment of Seizures (XeriJect) Xeris Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ETP, EF
ICV Dosing Stanford University; ICVrx, Inc. ETP
Magnesium Valproate (MagneVal) BioLink Life Sciences, Inc.
NRL-1 Intranasal Diazepam Neurelis
Reformulated Valproic Acid through Prometra Programmable Pump Cerebral Therapeutics ETP
Topiramate Extended Release (USL-255) Upsher-Smith Laboratories
Topiramate IV for Neonatal Seizures University of Minnesota; Ligang Pharmaceuticals (formerly CyDex) ETP, EF
Topiramate IV: Enhanced Method of Administration in Babies, Older Children and Adults University of Minnesota; Ligang Pharmaceuticals (formerly CyDex) ETP, EF
Dietary Supplement Company / Institution Sponsors Phase Approval
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Triheptanoin: Phase 11A Clinical Trial The University of Queensland, Australia ETP, EF
Therapeutic Devices Company / Institution Sponsors Phase Approval
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Closed-looped Microstimulation with Multi-electrode Arrays to Suppress Epileptic Seizures Emory University School of Medicine ETP, FACES
Deep Brain Stimulation - 1Hz rTMS for Treatment of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Children's Hospital Boston ETP, EF, CURE
Devices: Second Generation Designing Greater Efficacy University of Pennsylvania ETP, EF, CURE
External Vagal Nerve Stimulator ElectroCore
Focused Ultrasound for Epilepsy International HIFU
High Definition Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current for Treatment of Focal Status Epilepticus Soterix Medical Inc. ETP, EF
Minimally invasive mapping and ablation to treat epilepsy Mayo Clinic, Rochester, NY EF
MR-guided focused ultrasound for treatment of mesial TLE Swedish Neuroscience Institute EF
Subdural Pharmacotherapy Device New York University, School of Medicine ETP, EF
Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation Device NuroRestore ETP, EF
Seizure Detection & Prevention Company / Institution Sponsors Phase Approval
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Affectiva Wrist Sensor Massachusetts Institute of Technology
EpiLert Seizure Alert Device Biolert LTD ETP, EF
Kinect: Seizure Detection at Night Microsoft
Posttraumatic Pharmacoresistant Epileptogenesis: Animal Models University of Washington School of Medicine ETP, CURE
Seizure Advisory System NeuroVista
Seizure Detection Device Cyberonics
Sleep and Smart Shirts Massachusetts General Hospital
Epilepsy Diagnosis Company / Institution Sponsors Phase Approval
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Direct Network Visualization of Drug Efficacy Using of MRI Stanford University ETP, EF
EEG Headset: No prep, rapid measurement Advanced Neurometrics
Eight Channel Wireless EEG Headset Imec
Eye Movements and Epilepsy - Eye-Com Biosensor Children's Hospital, Oakland, CA
Factors Determining Placebo Response in Drug-Resistant Focal Epilepsy Mount Sinai School of Medicine EF
Fast Ripple Detection: Online Intracranial EEG Acquisition System Columbia University Medical Center ETP, EF
Model of TLE SynapCell SAS N/A
Multi-scale Human Electrophysiology and Stimulation Mayo Clinic, Rochester ETP, EF N/A
Photosensitivity Model: Assessment of Narrow Spectrum Antiepileptic Drugs New York University ETP, EF, MFF N/A
SUDEP: Heart and Brain Signals Advanced Brain Monitoring
Validation of the ANI-SI Dry EEG Headset in Time-Critical Applications Advanced Neurometrics, Inc. ETP, EF
Wireless EEG Seizure Patch Epitel, Inc. ETP, EF
Safety Devices Company / Institution Sponsors Phase Approval
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Airbag Head Protection for People with Epilepsy Hovding Sverige AB EF
Head Protection in Epilepsy Megan Dickison
Newly Marketed & Available for Patients Company / Institution Sponsors Phase Approval
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Brivaracetam UCB, Inc. X
Dense EEG Arrays: Non-invasive Electrical Geodesics, Inc. X X
Eslicarbazepine Acetate Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. X X
Midazolam, oromucosal solution Approved in other jurisdictions but waiting at FDA ViroPharma X
MRI-guided Laser Ablation of Epilepsy Foci Visualase, Inc. ETP, EF X
Oxcarbazepine: Extended Release (SPN-804) On the US market by mid-2013 Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. X
Perampanel US market availability for patients TBD Eisai Inc. X X
Responsive Neurostimulation NeuroPace, Inc. X
Retigabine: Drug Valeant; GSK X X
SAMi Smartphone Based Movement Detector HiPass Design Ltd ETP X X
SmartWatch: Seizure Detection Smart Monitor Corporation ETP, EF, Anon X
Thalamus Stimulation Approved in other jurisdictions but waiting at FDA Medtronic, Inc. X
Topiramate Extended Release (SPN-538) On the market by mid-2013 X
Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (eTNS™) for Drug Resistant Partial Seizures Approved in other jurisdictions but waiting at FDA NeuroSigma, Inc. ETP, EF X
t-VNS, Vagal stimulation via the ear Approved in other jurisdictions but waiting at FDA Cerbomed; Cyberonics X
Dormant Projects Company / Institution Sponsors Phase Approval
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
AV-101 VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc. ETP
Beclamide*
BGG492 (Selurampanel) Novartis International AG
Brain Cooling Flint Hills Scientific
Carisbamate* Johnson and Johnson
Closed-loop Feedback in a Rat Model of Chronic Epilepsy for Seizure Control ETP, EF N/A
CNV1061436 Convergence Pharmaceuticals
Controlling Brain Excitability by Electrical Stimulation ETP, EF X X
CTP-354 (previously C-21191) Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Diazepam, Intranasal Acorda Therapeutics
HE3286 treatment of drug resistant epilepsy Harbor Therapeutics, Inc. ETP, EF
ICA-105665 Pfizer/Neusentis Unit
Intracerebral Injection of Anticonvulsant Containing Spray-dried Biocompatible Microparticles for Long-Term Treatment of Epilepsy* Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, School of Pharmacy ETP, EF
JZP-4 Jazz
Netfiracetam*
Non Invasive Nonlinear Seizure Prediction Device University of Michigan ETP, EF
Phase Resetting using DC Stimulation for Seizure Blockage University of Kansas Medical Center ETP, EF, FACES
Propylisopropyl acetamide (PID)
Seizure Detection Device: Low Power Analog ETP
Seletracetam (UCB-44212)* UCB
SPD
Stiripentol Biocodex X
Talampanel Efficacy in Neonatal Seizures and Brain Injury* Children's Hospital; Harvard Medical School; Ivax @ Teva ETP, EF
Valnoctamide
Valproate pivoxil
Valrocemide (TV1901)
Vinpocetine Emory University