1. Annegers JF. The epidemiology of epilepsy. In: Wyllie E, ed. The Treatment of Epilepsy: Principles and Practice. Philadelphia, Pa: Lea & Febiger; 1993:157-164.

2. Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Lee SR, et al. Incidence of acute symptomatic seizures in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935-1984. Epilepsia. 1995;36:327-333.

3. Hauser WA. Seizure disorders: the changes with age. Epilepsia. 1992;33(suppl 4):S6-S14.

4. Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Kurland LT. Incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures in Rochester, Minnesota: 1935-1984. Epilepsia. 1993;34:453-468.

5. Scheuer ML, Cohen J. 1993. Seizures and epilepsy in the elderly. Neurol Clinics. 1993;11:787-804.

6. Tallis R. Epilepsy. In: Tallis R, ed. The Clinical Neurology of Old Age. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1989:213-234.

7. Caplan LR. Stroke: A Clinical Approach. 2nd ed. Boston, Mass: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1993.

8. Lesser RP, Luders H, Dinner DS, et al. Epileptic seizures due to thrombotic and embolic cerebrovascular disease in older patients. Epilepsia. 1985;26:622-630.

9. Louis S, McDowell F. Epileptic seizures in nonembolic cerebral infarction. Arch Neurol. 1967;17:414-418.

10. Olsen TS, Hogenhaven H, Thage O. Epilepsy after stroke. Neurology. 1987;37:1209-1211.

11. Kilpatrick CJ, Davis SM, Hopper JL, et al. Early seizures after acute stroke: risk of later seizures. Arch Neurol. 1992;49;509-511.

12. Giroud M, Gras P, Fayolle H, et al. Seizures after acute stroke: a study of 1640 cases. Epilepsia. 1994;35:959-964.

13. Shinton RA, Gill JS, Melnick SC, et al. The frequency, characteristics and prognosis of epileptic seizures at the onset of stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988;51:273-276.

14. Kilpatrick CJ, Davis SM, Tress BM, et al. Epileptic seizures after acute stroke. Arch Neurol. 1990;47:157-160.

15. Berger AR, Lipton RB, Lesser ML, et al. Early seizures following intracerebral hemorrhage: implications for therapy. Neurology. 1988; 38:1363-1365.

16. Weisberg LA, Shansma MA, Elliot D. Seizures caused by nontraumatic parenchymal brain hemorrhage. Neurology. 1991;41:1197-1199.

17. Faught E, Peters D, Bartolucci A, et al. Seizures after primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 1989;39:1089-1093.

18. Ng SKC, Hauser WA, Brust JCM, et al. Hypertension and the risk of new-onset unprovoked seizures. Neurology. 1993;43:425-428.

19. Shinton RA, Gill JS, Zezulka AV, et al. The frequency of epilepsy preceding stroke. Lancet. 1987;i:11-12.

20. Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Lee SR, et al. Secular trends and birth cohort effects in unprovoked seizures: Rochester, Minnesota, 1935-1984. Epilepsia. 1995;36:575-579.

21. Hauser WA. Seizure disorders: the changes with age. Epilepsia. 1992;33(suppl 4):S6-S14.

22. Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Kurland LT. Incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures in Rochester, Minnesota: 1935-1984. Epilepsia. 1993;34:453-468.

23. Scheuer ML, Cohen J. 1993. Seizures and epilepsy in the elderly. Neurol Clinics 1993;11:787-804.

24. Ettinger AB, Shinnar S. New onset seizures in an elderly hospitalized patient population. Neurology. 1993;43:489-492.

25. Daniele O, Mattaliano A, Tassinari CA, et al. Epileptic seizures and cerebrovascular disease. Acta Neurol Scand. 1989;80:17-22.

26. Van Ness P. Frontal and parietal lobe epilepsy. In: Wylie E, ed. The Treatment of Epilepsy: Principles and Practice. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1993:525-532.

27. Manford M, Hart YM, Sander JWAS, et al. National General Practice Study of Epilepsy (NGPSE): partial seizure patterns in a general population. Neurology. 1992;42:1911-1917.

28. Bromfield EB. Somatosensory, special sensory, and autonomic phenomena in seizures. Semin Neurol. 1991;11:91-99.

29. Tallis R. Epilepsy. In: Tallis R, ed. The Clinical Neurology of Old Age. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1989:213-234.

30. Lannon SL. Epilepsy in the elderly. J Neurosci Nurs. 1993;25:273-282.

31. Devinsky O. The differential diagnosis of epilepsy. Semin Neurol. 1990;10:321-327.

32. Maddens ME. Syncope. In: Barclay L, ed. Clinical Geriatric Neurology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1993:121-133.

33. Dohrmann ML, Cheitlin MD. Cardiogenic syncope. Neurol Clin. 1986;4:549-562.

34. Epstein MA, Sperling MR, O’Connor MJ. Cardiac rhythm during temporal lobe seizures. Neurology. 1992;42:50-53.

35. Leidholm LJ, Gudjohsson O. Cardiac arrest due to partial epileptic seizures. Neurology. 1992;42:824-829.

36. Lempert T, Bauer M, Schmidt D. Syncope: a videometric analysis of 56 episodes of transient cerebral hypoxia. Ann Neurol. 1994;36:233-237.

37. Stephenson JBP. Fits and Faints. Oxford, England: Blackwell; 1990.

38. Linzer M, Grubb B, Ho S, et al. Cardiovascular causes of loss of consciousness in patients with presumed epilepsy. Am J Med. 1994;96:146-154.

39. Feldmann E, Wilterdink J. The symptoms of transient ischemic attacks. Semin Neurol.1991;11:135-145.

40. Caplan LR. Stroke: A Clinical Approach. 2nd ed. Boston, Mass: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1993.

41. Baquis GD, Pessin MS, Scott M. Limb shaking—a carotid TIA. Stroke. 1985;16:444-448.

42. Engel J Jr. Seizures and Epilepsy. Philadelphia, Pa: FA Davis; 1989.

43. Wells CR, Labar DR, Solomon GE. Aphasia as the sole manifestation of simple partial status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 1992;33:84-87.

44. Fisher CM. Late-life migraine accompaniments as a cause of unexplained transient ischemic attacks. Can J Neurol Sci. 1980;7:9-17.

45. Ehrenberg BL. Unusual manifestations of migraine and “the borderland of epilepsy”—Re-explored. Semin Neurol. 1991;11:118-127.

46. Chokroverty S, ed. Sleep Disorders Medicine. Boston, Mass: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1994.

47. Labar DR. Sleep disorders and epilepsy: differential diagnosis. Semin Neurol. 1991;11:128-134.

48. Thomas P, Beaumanoir A, Genton P, et al. “De novo” absence status of late onset. Neurology. 1992;42:104-110.

49. Guberman A, Cantu-Reyna G, Stuss D, Broughton R. Nonconvulsive generalized status epilepticus. Neurology. 1986;36:1284-1291.

50. Tomson T, Svanborg E, Wedlund JE. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus: high incidence of complex partial status. Epilepsia. 1986;27:276-285.

51. Niedermeyer E, Lopes da Silva F. Electroencephalography. 3rd ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1993.

52. Rowan AJ, Gates JR. Non-Epileptic Seizures. Boston, Mass: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1993.

53. Fagan KJ, Lee SI. Prolonged confusion following convulsions due to generalized nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Neurology. 1990;40:1689-1694.

54. Niedermeyer E, Lopes da Silva F. Electroencephalography. 3rd ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1993.

55. Holmes GL. The electroencephalogram as a predictor of seizures following cerebral infarction. Clin Electroencephalogr. 1980;11:83-86

56. Oken B, Kaye JA. Electrophysiologic function in the healthy, extremely old. Neurology 1992;42:519-526.

57. Berg AT, Shinnar S. The risk of seizure recurrence following a first unprovoked seizure: a quantitative review. Neurology. 1991;41:965-972.

58. Hart YM, Sander JWAS, Johnson AL, et al. National General Practice Study of Epilepsy: recurrence after a first seizure. Lancet. 1990; 336:1271-1274.

59. Hauser WA, Rich SS, Annegers JF, et al. Seizure recurrence after a 1st unprovoked seizure: an extended follow-up. Neurology. 1990;40:1163-1170.

60. First Seizure Trial Group (FIR.S.T. GROUP: Principal investigators: Musicco M, Beghi E, Bordo B, Viani F). Randomized clinical trial on the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in reducing the risk of relapse after a first unprovoked tonic-clonic seizure. Neurology. 1993;43:478-483.

61. Tallis R. Epilepsy. In: Tallis R, ed. The Clinical Neurology of Old Age. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1989:213-234.

62. Lannon SL. Epilepsy in the elderly. J Neurosci Nurs. 1993;25:273-282.

63. Theodore WH. Epilepsy in the elderly. In: Barclay L, ed. Clinical Geriatric Neurology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1993:134-142.

64. Willmore LJ, Dulac O. Use of antiepileptic drugs in children and the elderly. In: Levy RH, Mattson RH, Meldrum BS, eds. Antiepileptic Drugs. 4th ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995:231-242.

65. Bogousslavsky J, Martin R, Regli F, et al. Persistent worsening of stroke sequelae after delayed seizures. Arch Neurol. 1992;49:385-388.

66. Callaghan N, Kenny RA, O’Neill B, et al. A prospective study between carbamazepine, phenytoin, and sodium valproate as monotherapy in previously untreated and recently diagnosed patients with epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1985;48:639-644.

67. Mattson RH, Cramer JA, Collins JF, et al. A comparison of valproate with carbamazepine for the treatment of complex partial seizures and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:765-771.

68. Troupin AS, Johannessen SI. Epilepsy in the elderly: a pharmacologic perspective. In: Smith DB, ed. Epilepsy: Current Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Raven Press; 1990:141-152.

69. Tallis R. Epilepsy. In: Tallis R, ed. The Clinical Neurology of Old Age. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1989:213-234.

70. Theodore WH. Epilepsy in the elderly. In: Barclay L, ed. Clinical Geriatric Neurology. Philadelphia, Pa: Lea & Febiger; 1993:134-142.

71. Dreifuss FE. Valproic acid: Toxicity. In: Levy RH, Mattson RH, Meldrum BS. Antiepileptic Drugs. 4th ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995:641-648.

72. Troupin AS, Johannessen SI. Epilepsy in the elderly: a pharmacologic perspective. In: Smith DB, ed. Epilepsy: Current Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Raven Press; 1990:141-152.

73. Montamat SC, Cusack BJ, Vestal RE. Management of drug therapy in the elderly. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:303-309.

74. Parker BM, Vestal RE. Pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsant drugs in the elderly. In: Wyllie E, ed. The Treatment of Epilepsy: Principles and Practice. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1993:769-774.

75. Willmore LJ, Dulac O. Use of antiepileptic drugs in children and the elderly. In: Levy RH, Mattson RH, Meldrum BS, eds. Antiepileptic Drugs. 4th ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995:231-242.

76. Scheuer ML, Cohen J. 1993. Seizures and epilepsy in the elderly. Neurol Clinics 1993;11:787-804.

77. Lannon SL. Epilepsy in the elderly. J Neurosci Nurs. 1993;25:273-282.

78. Theodore WH. Epilepsy in the elderly. In: Barclay L, ed. Clinical Geriatric Neurology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1993:134-142.

79. Ettinger AB, Shinnar S. New onset seizures in an elderly hospitalized patient population. Neurology. 1993;43:489-492.

80. Morrell MJ. Hormones and epilepsy through the lifetime. Epilepsia. 1992;33(suppl 4), S49-S61.

81. Katzman R, Rowe JW. Principles of Geriatric Neurology. Philadelphia: FA Davis; 1992.

82. Medical Research Council Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Study Group. Randomized study of antiepileptic drug withdrawal in patients in remission. Lancet. 1991;337:1175-1180.

83. Cascino GD, Sharbrough FW, Hirschorn KA, et al. Surgery for focal epilepsy in the older patient. Neurology. 1991;41:1415-1417.

84. Hauser WA. Status epilepticus: epidemiologic considerations. In: Leppik IE, ed. Status Epilepticus in Perspective. Neurology. 1990;40(suppl 2):9-13.

85. DeLorenzo RJ, Towne AR, Pellock JM, et al. Status epilepticus in children, adults, and the elderly. Epilepsia. 1992;33(suppl 4):S15-S25.

86. Glaser GH. Medical complications of status epilepticus. In: Status Epilepticus: Mechanisms of Brain Damage and Treatment. New York: Raven Press; 1983;395-398. Vol 34 in: Delgado-Escueta AV, Wasterlain C, Treiman DM, et al, eds. Advances in Neurology.

87. Working Group on Status Epilepticus. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus. JAMA. 1993;270:854-859.

88. Yaffe K, Lowenstein DH. Prognostic factors of pentobarbital therapy for refractory generalized status epilepticus. Neurology. 1993;43:895-900.

89. Kumar A, Bleck TP. Intravenous midazolam for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Crit Care Med. 1992;20:483-488.

90. Thomas P, Beaumanoir A, Genton P, et al. “De novo” absence status of late onset. Neurology. 1992;42:104-110.

91. Guberman A, Cantu-Reyna G, Stuss D, Broughton R. Nonconvulsive generalized status epilepticus. Neurology. 1986;36:1284-1291.

92. Tomson T, Svanborg E, Wedlund JE. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus: high incidence of complex partial status. Epilepsia. 1986;27:276-285.

93. Wells CR, Labar DR, Solomon GE. Aphasia as the sole manifestation of simple partial status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 1992;33:84-87.

94. Sinha S, Naritoku DK. Intravenous valproate is well tolerated in unstable patients with status epilepticus. Neurology. 2000 Sep 12;55(5):722-4.

95. Claassen J, Hirsch LJ, Emerson RG, Mayer SA.Treatment of refractory status epilepticus with pentobarbital, propofol, or midazolam: a systematic review. Epilepsia 2002 Feb;43(2):146-53.

96.Neurology Reviews 2003;11 :http://www.neurologyreviews.com/oct03/nr_oct03_seizures.html

97. Alsaadi TM, Koopmans S, Apperson M, Farias S. Levetiracetam monotherapy for elderly patients with epilepsy. Seizure. 2004 Jan;13(1):58-60.

I<