The mission of the Epilepsy Foundation includes accelerating new therapies for people living with epilepsy and seizures. As a reflection of our commitment and as a service to the community we are pleased to provide here the pipeline of epilepsy therapies in various stages of development. We thank all of the individuals and organizations whose efforts are reflected in these seeds of hope. The Epilepsy Foundation makes no claims of accuracy of the following data. Although every effort is made to continuously update this list, some errors are inevitable. Companies or academicians or others who are directly involved with any of the therapies listed here are strongly encouraged to keep us updated by contacting kmacher@efa.org of any needed changes.

Impact Statement


Phases

Rather than only use the traditional Phase I,II, and III (which can also be ambiguous), we have chosen more meaningful "break points" for epilepsy therapies:

  • Phase 0: Preclinical—Not Yet In Humans
  • Phase I: First Clinical Use—The Therapy Has Been Tested In A Small Number of Humans (Usually Non-Patient Volunteers)
  • Phase IIa: Early Patient Use—A Few Patients With Seizures Have Been Exposed To The Therapy; Small Clinical Trials Are Underway Or Completed
  • Phase IIb: Critical Proof of Concept—A Large Trial, Suitable As A Registration Study, Has Shown Positive Results (Devices move directly to Phase III)
  • Phase III: Late Clinical Use—The Therapy Is In The Final Stages Of Acquiring All The Data Needed For Registration; Many Patients Have Received the Therapy
  • Registration (R): The Therapy Has Been Accepted for Potential Approval by the FDA (Filing Has Been Accepted)
  • Approved and To The Patients (US): The Therapy Is Available To Patients In The US
  • Approved and To The Patients (ex-US): The Therapy Is Available To Patients outside of the US

When support has been provided by the Epilepsy Foundation (or the former Epilepsy Therapy Project, which is now an initiative of the Epilepsy Foundation), the therapy is listed under the "Phase" column(s) in blue.

When support has been provided by other sources, the therapy is listed under the "Phase" column(s) in orange.


Sponsors

When support has been provided by the Epilepsy Foundation or its partners, the organization's abbreviated name is listed under the "Sponsors" column.

EF - Epilepsy Foundation | ETP - Epilepsy Therapy Project | CURE - Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy | FACES - Finding a Cure for Epilepsy and Seizures | MFF - Milken Family Foundation | Anon - Anonymous Sponsor


Categories

Drugs | Enhanced Drug Delivery | Dietary Supplements | Therapeutic Devices | Seizure Detection & Prediction | Epilepsy Diagnosis | Safety Devices | Newly Marketed & Available for Patients | Dormant Projects

In each of the following categories the therapies are listed in alphabetical order, and when available, are linked to more information. The company name or institution associated with each therapy is also provided.

Mobile users, please swipe from right to left to view all of the data.

 

DRUGS Company / Institution
Sponsors
Phase
Approved
O
I
IIa
IIb
III
R
US
ex-US
Adenosine-Augmentation Therapies (AAT's) for Epilepsy Therapy R.S. Dow Neurobiology Laboratories and Legacy Research Institute
ETP, EF, CURE
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alprazolam R.S. Dow Neurobiology Laboratories and Legacy Research Institute  
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
AMP-X-0079 AurimMed Pharma, Inc.
EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
antagoNAT Platform OPKO
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asian Herbs for Epilepsy Harvard Medical School
ETP
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AV-101 VistaGen Therapeutics, Inc.
ETP
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BGG492* Novartis International AG
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
BK Channel Antagonists: Use of for Seizure Prevention; paxilline Carnegie Mellon University
ETP, MFF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brivaracetam UCB, Inc.
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
 
 
 
C-10068 Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cannabidiol (CBD) University of California, SF; NYU, Mass General, Great Ormond Street Hospital, and GW Pharma
EF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Cannabidivarin GW Pharma and
Otsuka Pharmaceuticals
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CNV1061436 Convergence Pharmaceuticals
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
 
 
CPP-115 Catalyst Pharmaceutical Partners
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
 
 
CTP-354 (previously C-21191) Concert Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Deoxyglucose (2DG) for Intractable Seizures University of Virginia
ETP, EF, MFF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
DG (2DG) for Therapy of Epilepsy, Preclinical, IND-enabling Studies University of Wisconsin
NeuroGenomeX, Inc.
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diazepam, Intranasal Acorda Therapeutics
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
 
 
 
 
Diazepam, Intranasal Neurelis
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dynamin: A Target for Novel Anti-epileptic Drugs Children's Medical Research Institute, The University of Sydney, BioLink
ETP, FACES, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Galanin Gene Delivery to the Hippocampus for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Asklepios BioPharmaceutical, Inc.
ETP, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Galanin NAX 810-2 - Galanin Based Therapy for Refractory Epilepsy University of Utah
ETP, EF, MFF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Galanin Receptor-2 Based Therapy NeuroAdjuvants, Inc.
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ganaxolone for Treatment in Epilepsy Marinus Pharmaceuticals
ETP
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Ginseng Extracts: Preclinical Evaluation in the Treatment of Seizures Baylor College of Medicine
ETP, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
HE3286 treatment of drug resistant epilepsy Harbor Therapeutics, Inc.
ETP, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Herbal Extracts and Extract-derived Compounds; In Vitro and In Vivo Testing for Treatment of Epilepsy Harvard Medical School
ETP, FACES, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Huperzine (lead therapy) / Therapy with a novel MOA Insero Health
ETP, EF, MFF
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
 
 
ICA-105665 Pfizer/Neusentis Unit
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Levitracetam - Intravenous Administration in Neonates University of San Diego
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Magnetonanoparticles for Enhanced Therapy of Epilepsy UCLA School of Medicine
ETP, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Memantine and other NMDA Receptor Channel Compounds to Treat a Variety of CNS Disorders Including Epilepsy Adamas Pharmaceuticals
ETP
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Midazolam, intranasal (USL-261) Upsher-Smith Laboratories
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
MPP-021 MediProPharma
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Naluzotan Proximagen
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
NPY Gene Transfer in Subjects with Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy* The Ohio State University
Neurologix, Inc.
ETP, MFF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NTP-A NeuroTherapeutics
Pharma
ETP
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
P529 (Palomid) Paloma Pharmaceuticals
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Propofol hemisuccinate: Pulmonary Delivery for the Control of Intractable Seizures University of California Davis, Epalex
ETP, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
R-PID, S-PID and racemic PID; Second Generation Valproic Acid The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
ETP
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
T2000 Taro Pharmaceuticals
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
 
 
T-2007 Taro Pharmaceuticals
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
 
 
Targeting Glycolysis as a New Approach to the Treatment of Epilepsy Baylor College of Medicine
ETP, MFF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Tellurium Compounds (AS101 and SAS) with Neuroprotective Activity in Epilepsy Bar Ilan University
ETP, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tonabersat Upsher-Smith Laboratories
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
 
 
T-type Calcium Channel Antagonists as Novel AEDS Baylor College of Medicine
ETP, MFF, FACES
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
UCB 0942 UCB, Inc.
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
 
 
VX765 Vertex Pharmaceuticals
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
 
 
 
 
YKP3089 SK Life Sciences
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
 
 
 
 

ENHANCED DRUG DELIVERY Company / Institution
Sponsors
Phase Approved
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Application of Drug Directly to Brain New York University
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
   
Carbamazepine, IV Lundbeck
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
 
   
Convection Enhanced Delivery of Anticonvulsant Toxins for the Treatment of Intractable Partial Epilepsy University of California Davis, and Medgenesis Therapeutix
ETP, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
   
GDNF Local Delivery to Brain MedGenesis Therapeutix, Inc.
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
   
Diazepam Auto-injector (Vanquix)* King Pharmaceuticals / Pfizer
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
 
   
Diazepam Injection for Emergency Treatment of Seizures (XeriJect) Xeris Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
ETP, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
   
ICV Dosing Stanford University
and ICVrx, Inc.
ETP
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
   
Magnesium Valproate BioLink Life Sciences, Inc..
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
X
Topiramate Extended Release (USL-255) Upsher-Smith Laboratories
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
 
   
Topiramate IV for Neonatal Seizures University of Minnesota
and Ligang Pharmaceuticals (formerly CyDex)
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   
Topiramate IV: Enhanced Method of Administration in Babies, Older Children and Adults University of Minnesota and Ligang Pharmaceuticals (formerly CyDex)
ETP, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
   

DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Company / Institution
Sponsors
Phase Approved
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Triheptanoin: Phase 11A Clinical Trial The University of Queensland, Australia
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
       

THERAPEUTIC DEVICES Company / Institution
Sponsors
Phase Approved
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Closed-looped Microstimulation with Multi-electrode Arrays to Suppress Epileptic Seizures Emory University School of Medicine
ETP, FACES
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
   
Deep Brain Stimulation - 1Hz rTMS for Treatment of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Children's Hospital Boston
ETP, EF, CURE
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
   
Devices: Second Generation Designing Greater Efficacy University of Pennsylvania
ETP, EF, CURE
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
   
External Vagal Nerve Stimulator ElectroCore
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   
Focused Ultrasound for Epilepsy International HIFU
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   
High Definition Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current for Treatment of Focal Status Epilepticus Soterix Medical Inc.
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   
Minimally invasive mapping and ablation to treat epilepsy Mayo Clinic, Rochester, NY
EF
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   
MR-guided focused ultrasound for treatment of mesial TLE Swedish Neuroscience Institute
EF
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   
Subdural Pharmacotherapy Device New York University, School of Medicine
ETP, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
   
Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation Device NuroRestore
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   

SEIZURE DETECTION & PREDICTION Company / Institution
Sponsors
Phase Approved
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Affectiva Wrist Sensor Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
   
EpiLert Seizure Alert Device Biolert LTD
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
   
Kinect: Seizure Detection at Night Microsoft
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
   
Posttraumatic Pharmacoresistant Epileptogenesis: Animal Models University of Washington School of Medicine
ETP, CURE
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
   
Seizure Advisory System NeuroVista
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
   
Seizure Detection Device Cyberonics
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
   
Sleep and Smart Shirts Massachusetts General Hospital
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   

EPILEPSY DIAGNOSIS Company / Institution
Sponsors
Phase Approved
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Direct Network Visualization of Drug Efficacy Using ofMRI Stanford University
ETP, EF
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
   
EEG Headset: No prep, rapid measurement Advanced Neurometrics
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
   
Eight Channel Wireless EEG Headset Imec
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   
Eye Movements and Epilepsy---Eye-Com Biosensor Children's Hospital, Oakland, CA
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
   
Factors Determining Placebo Response in Drug-Resistant Focal Epilepsy Mount Sinai School of Medicine
EF
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   
Fast Ripple Detection: Online Intracranial EEG Acquisition System Columbia University Medical Center
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
   
Model of TLE SynapCell SAS
 
N/A
 
 
 
 
 
   
Multi-scale Human Electrophysiology and Stimulation Mayo Clinic, Rochester
ETP, EF
N/A
 
 
 
 
 
   
Photosensitivity Model: Assessment of Narrow Spectrum Antiepileptic Drugs New York University
ETP, EF, MFF
N/A
 
 
 
 
 
   
SUDEP: Heart and Brain Signals Advanced Brain Monitoring
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
   
Validation of the ANI-SI Dry EEG Headset in Time-Critical Applications Advanced Neurometrics, Inc.
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   
Wireless EEG Seizure Patch Epitel, Inc.
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   

SAFETY DEVICES Company / Institution
Sponsors
Phase Approved
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Airbag Head Protection for People with Epilepsy Hovding Sverige AB
EF
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   
Head Protection in Epilepsy Megan Dickison
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
   

NEWLY MARKETED & AVAILABLE FOR PATIENTS Company / Institution
Sponsors
Phase Available
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Dense EEG Arrays: Non-invasive Electrical Geodesics, Inc.
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
Registration
X X
Eslicarbazepine Acetate Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
Registration
X X
Midazolam, oromucosal solution
Approved in other jurisdictions but waiting at FDA
ViroPharma
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
 
 
X
MRI-guided Laser Ablation of Epilepsy Foci Visualase, Inc.
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
Registration
X  
Oxcarbazepine: Extended Release (SPN-804)
On the US market by mid 2013
Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
Registration
X  
Perampanel
US market availability for patients TBD
Eisai Inc.
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
Registration
X
X
Responsive Neurostimulation NeuroPace, Inc.
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
Registration
X  
Retigabine: Drug Valeant/GSK
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
Registration
X
X
SAMi Smartphone Based Movement Detector HiPass Design Ltd
ETP
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
    X
X
SmartWatch: Seizure Detection Smart Monitor Corporation
ETP, EF, Anon
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
    X  
Thalamus Stimulation
Approved in other jurisdictions but waiting at FDA
Medtronic, Inc.
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
Registration
  X
Topiramate Extended Release (SPN-538)
On the market by mid 2013
Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
Registration
X  
Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (eTNS™) for Drug Resistant Partial Seizures
Approved in other jurisdictions but waiting at FDA
NeuroSigma, Inc.
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
 
 
  X
t-VNS, Vagal stimulation via the ear
Approved in other jurisdictions but waiting at FDA
Cerbomed and Cyberonics
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
 
  X

DORMANT PROJECTS Company / Institution
Sponsors
Phase Approved
O I IIa IIb III R US ex-US
Beclamide*  
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Brain Cooling Flint Hills Scientific
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carisbamate* Johnson and Johnson
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
Registration
 
 
Closed-loop Feedback in a Rat Model of Chronic Epilepsy for Seizure Control Arizona State University
ETP, EF
N/A
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Controlling Brain Excitability by Electrical Stimulation Yale University
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Intracerebral Injection of Anticonvulsant Containing Spray-dried Biocompatible Microparticles for Long-Term Treatment of Epilepsy* Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, School of Pharmacy
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
Phase IIb
Phase III
Registration
 
 
JZP-4 Jazz
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Nefiracetam*  
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non Invasive Nonlinear Seizure Prediction Device University of Michigan
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Phase Resetting using DC Stimulation for Seizure Blockage University of Kansas Medical Center
ETP, EF, FACES
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Propylisopropyl acetamide (PID)  
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Seizure Detection Device: Low Power Analog Flint Hills Scientific
ETP
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Seletracetam (UCB-44212)* UCB
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SPD  
 
Phase 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stiripentol Biocodex  
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
X
Talampanel Efficacy in Neonatal Seizures and Brain Injury* Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Ivax @ Teva
ETP, EF
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Valnoctamide  
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Valproate pivoxil  
 
Phase 0
Phase I
 
 
 
 
 
 
Valrocemide (TV1901)  
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
Vinpocetine Emory University
 
Phase 0
Phase I
Phase IIa
 
 
 
 
 
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