1. Mattson RH. Emotional effects on seizure occurrence. In D Smith, D Treiman, M Trimble (eds), Advances in Neurology, vol. 55. New York: Raven Press, 1991;453–460.

2. Andrews HL. Cortical effects of demerol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1956;117:414–419.

3. Winter WD. Epilepsy or anesthesia with ketamine. Anesthesiology 1972;36:309–312.

4. Hiilesma VK. Pregnancy and birth in women with epilepsy. Neurology 1992;42[Suppl 5]:8–11.

5. Morrell MJ. Differential diagnosis of seizures. Neurol Clin 1993;11:737–754.

6. Lin JT-Y, Ziegler DK, Lai CW, Bayer W. Convulsive syncope in blood donors. Ann Neurol 1982;11:525–528.

7. Boarini DJ, Beck DW, VanGilder JC. Postoperative prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy in cerebral gliomas. Neurosurgery 1985;16:290–292.

8. Serbanesco F, Mermet B, Vicat J, Serbanesco-Ventila F. Epilepsy and cardiac surgery. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1991;32:814–819.

9. Tritapepe L, Voci P, Marino P, et al. Calcium chloride minimizes the hemodynamic effects of propofol in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1999;13:150–153.

10. Jensen PK, Abild K, Poulsen MN. Serum concentration of clonazepam after rectal administration. Acta Neurol Scand 1983;68:417–420.

11. Graves NM, Kriel RL. Bioavailability of rectally administered lorazepam. Clin Neuropharmacol 1987;10:555–559.

12. Moolenaar F, Bakker S, Visser J, et al. Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in man. IX: comparative biopharmaceutics of diazepam after single rectal, oral, intramuscular and intravenous administration in man. Int J Pharm 1980;5:127–137.

13. Kriel RL, Cloyd JC, Pellock JM, et al. Rectal diazepam gel for treatment of acute repetitive seizures. The North American Diastat Study Group. Pediatr Neurol 1999;20:282–288.

14. Graves NG, Kriel RL, Jones-Saete C, et al. Relative bio- availability of rectally administered carbamazepine suspension in humans. Epilepsia 1985;26:429–433.

15. Fuerst RH, Graves NM, Kriel RL, et al. Absorption and safety of rectally administered phenytoin. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1988;13:257–260.

16. Holmes GB, Rosenfeld WE, Graves NM, et al. Absorption of valproic acid suppositories in human volunteers. Arch Neurol 1989;48:906–909.

17. George JR, Davis GG. Comparison of anti-epileptic drug levels in different cases of sudden death. J Forensic Sci 1998;46:598–603.

18. Bredahl C. Seizures and opisthotonos after propofol anaesthesia. A possible connection. Ugesks Laeger 1990;152:748–749.

19. Chambers HG, Weinstein CH, Mubarak SJ, et al. The effect of valproic acid on blood loss in patients with cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 1999;19:792–795.

20. Ward MM, Barbaro NM, Laxer KD, Rampil IJ. Preoperative valproate administration does not increase blood loss during temporal lobectomy. Epilepsia 1996;37:98–101.

21. Loiseau P. Sodium valproate, platelet dysfunction, and bleeding. Epilepsia 1981;22:141–146.

22. Wilner A, Raymond K, Pollard R. Topiramate and metabolic acidosis. Epilepsia 1999;40:792–795.

23. Modica PA, Tempelhoff R, White PF. Pro- and anti-convulsant effects of anesthetics (part I and II). Anesth Analg 1990;70:433–444.

24. Opitz A, Marschall M, Degan R, Koch D. General anesthesia in patients with epilepsy and status epilepticus. In AV Delgado-Escueta, CG Wasterlain, DM Treiman, RJ Porter (eds), Status Epilepticus: Mechanisms of Brain Damage and Treatment. New York: Raven Press, 1983;531–535.

25. Clark DL, Rosner BS. Neurophysiologic effects of general anesthesics. I. The electroencephalogram and sensory evoked responses in man. Anesthesiology 1973;38:564–582.

26. Clark DL, Hosick EC, Adam N, et al. Neural effects of isoflurane (forane) in man. Anesthesiology 1973;39:261–270.

27. Burchiel KJ, Stockard JJ, Myers RR, et al. Metabolic and electrophysiologic mechanisms in the initiation and termination of enflurane-induced seizures in man and cats. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1975;38:555.

28. Burchiel KJ, Stockard JJ, Calverly RK, Smith NT. Relationship of pre- and postanesthetic EEG abnormalities to enflurane-induced seizure activity. Anesth Analg 1977;56:509–514.

29. Ito BM, Sato S, Kufta CV, Tran D. Effect of isoflurane and enflurane on the electrocorticogram of epileptic patients. Neurology 1988;38:924–928.

30. Lebowitz MH, Blitt CS, Dillon JB. Clinical investigation of compound 374 (ethrane). Anesth Analg 1970;49:1–10.

31. Flemming DC, Fitzpatrick J, Fariello RG, et al. Diagnostic activation of epileptogenic foci by enflurane. Anesthesiology 1980;52:431–433.

32. Neigh JL, Garman JK, Harp JR. The electroencephalographic pattern during anaesthesia with ethrane: effects of depth of anaesthesia, PaCO2, and nitrous oxide. Anesthesiology 1971;35:482–487.

33. Ohm WW, Cullen BF, Amory DW, Kennedy RD. Delayed seizure activity following enflurane anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1975;42:367–368.

34. Chase RE, Holaday DA, Fiseroua-Bergerouva V, et al. The biotransformation of ethrane in man. Anesthesiology 1971;35:262–267.

35. Darimont PC, Jenkins LC. The influence of intravenous anesthetics on enflurane-induced central nervous system seizure activity. Canad Anaesth Soc J 1977;24:1:42–56.

36. Burchiel KJ, Stockard JJ, Calvery RK, et al. Electroencephalographic abnormalities following halothane anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1978;57:244–251.

37. Smith PA, McDonald TR, Jones CS. Convulsions associated with halothane anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 1966;21:229–233.

38. Harrison JL. Postoperative seizures after isoflurane anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1986;65:1235–1236.

39. Kofke WA, Snider MT, O'Connell BK, et al. Isoflurane stops refractory seizures. Anesthesiol Rev 1987;15:58–59.

40. Kofke WA, Snider MT, Young RSK, Ramer JC. Prolonged low flow isoflurane anesthesia for status epilepticus. Anesthesiology 1985;62:653–656.

41. Ropper AH, Kofke WA, Bromfield EB, Kennedy SK. Comparison of isoflurane, halothane, and nitrous oxide in status epilepticus [Letter]. Ann Neurol 1986;19:98–99.

42. Rampil IJ, Lockhart SH, Eger EI 2nd, Yasuda N, Weiskopt RB, Calahan MK. The electroencephalographic effects of desflurane in humans. Anesthesiology 1991;74:434–439.

43. Young WL. Effects of desflurane on the central nervous system. Anesth Analg 1992;75:S32–S37.

44. Konatsu H, Taie S, Syoiti E, et al. Electrical seizure during sevoflurane anesthesia in two pediatric patients with epilepsy. Anesth Analg 1994;81:1535–1537.

45. Oei-Lim VL, et al. A comparison of the effects of propofol and nitrous oxide on the electroencephalogram in epileptic patients during conscious sedation for dental procedures. Anesth Analg 1992;75:708–714.

46. Babb TL, Ferrer-Brechner T, Brechner VL, Crandall PH. Limbic neuronal firing rates in man during administration of nitrous oxide-oxygen or sodium thiopental. Anesthesiology 1975;43:402–409.

47. Knoefel PK. Stimulation and depression of the central nervous system by derivatives of barbituric acid. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1945;84:26.

48. Kofke WA, Templehoff R, Dasheiff RM. Anesthesia for Epileptic Patients and for Epilepsy Surgery. In JE Cotrell, DS Smith (eds), Anesthesia and Neurosurgery. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1994;495–524.

49. Paul R, Harris R. A comparison of methohexitone and thiopentone in electrocorticography. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1970;33:100–104.

50. Rockoff MA, Goudsouzian NG. Seizures induced by methohexital. Anaesthesiology 1981;54:333–335.

51. Ryder W. Methohexitone and epilepsy. Br Dent J 1969;126:343.

52. Musella L, Wilder BJ, Schmidt RP. Electroencephalographic activation with intravenous methohexital in psychomotor epilepsy. Neurology 1971;21:594–602.

53. Smith MC, Whisler WW, Morrell F. Neurosurgery of epilepsy. Semin Neurol 1989;9:231–248.

54. Kreiger W, Copperman J, Laxer DL. Seizures with etomidate anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1985;64:1226–1227.

55. Ebrahim ZY, DeBoer GE, Luders H, et al. Effect of etomidate on the electroencephalogram of patients with epilepsy. Anesth Analg 1986;65:1004–1006.

56. Parent JM, Lowenstein DH. Treatment of refractory generalized status epilepticus with continuous infusion of midazolam. Neurology 1994;44:1837–1840.

57. Perucca E. Pharmacokinetic interactions with antiepileptic drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet 1982;7:57–84.

58. Tassinari CA, Dravet C, Roger J, Cano JP, Gastaut H. Tonic status epilepticus precipitated by intravenous benzodiazepine in five patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Epilepsia 1972;13:421–435.

59. Templehoff R, Modica PA, Bernardo KL, Edwards I. Fentanyl-induced electrographic seizures in patients with complex partial epilepsy. J Neurosurg 1992;77:201–208.

60. Borgeat A, Biollaz J, Depierraz B, Neff R. Grand mal seizures after extradural morphine analgesia. Br J Anaesth 1988;60:733–735.

61. Landow L. An apparent seizure following inadvertent intrathecal morphine. Anaesthesiology 1985;62:545–562.

62. Kaiko RF, Foley KM, Grabinsky PY. Central nervous system excitatory effects of meperidine in cancer patients. Ann Neurol 1983;13:180–185.

63. Szeto HH, Inturrisi CE, Houde R, et al. Accumulation of normeperidine, an active metabolite of meperidine in patients with renal failure and cancer. Ann Intern Med 1977;86:738–741.

64. Mather LE, Tucker GT. Systemic availability of orally administered meperidine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1976;20:535–540.

65. Hochman MS. Meperidine associated myoclonus and seizures in long term hemodialysis patients. Ann Neurol 1983;14:593.

66. Hagmeyer KO, Mauro LS, Mauro VF. Meperidine-related seizures associated with patient controlled analgesia pumps. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:29–32.

67. Goetting MG, Thirmam MJ. Neurotoxicity of meperidine. Ann Emerg Med 1985;14:1007–1009.

68. Rao TLK, Mummaneni N, El-Etr AA. Convulsions: An unusual response to intravenous fentanyl administration [Letter]. Anesth Analg 1982;61:1020–1021.

69. Safwat AM, Daniel D. Grand mal seizure after fentanyl administration [Letter]. Anesthesiology 1983;59:78.

70. Cascino GD, So EL, Sharbrough FW, et al. Alfentanil-induced epileptiform activity in patients with partial epilepsy. J Clin Neurophysiol 1993;10:520–525.

71. Rudehill A, Gordon E, Grepe A, Widen L. The epileptogenicity of neurolept anesthesia in patients during and after neuroradiological examinations with metrizamide. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1983;27:285–288.

72. Ferrer-Allado T, Brechner VL, Dymond A, et al. Ketamine induced electroconvulsive phenomena in the human limbic and thalamic regions. Anesthesiology 1973;38:333–344.

73. Bennett DR, Madsen JA, Jordan WS, Wiser WC. Ketamine anesthesia in brain damaged epileptics. Neurology 1973;23:449–460.

74. Celesia GG, Chen RC, Bamforth BJ. Effects of ketamine in epilepsy. Neurology 1975;25:169–172.

75. Corseen G, Little S, Tavakoli M. Ketamine and epilepsy. Anesth Analg 1974;53:319–335.

76. Cameron AE. Opisthotonos again. Anaesthesia 1987;42:1124.

77. Hodkinson BP, Frith RW, Mee EW. Propofol and the electroencephalogram. Lancet 1987;8574:1518.

78. Brunton LL. Agents affecting gastrointestinal water flux and motility, digestants and bile acids. In A Gilman, TW Rall, AS Neis, P Talor (eds), Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (8th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990;914–932.

79. Hopkins CS. Recurrent opisthotonos associated with anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 1988;43:905.

80. Lowson S, Gent JP, Goodchild CS. Anticonvulsant properties of propofol and thiopentone: comparison using two tests in laboratory mice. Br J Anaesth 1990;64:59–63.

81. Bone ME, Wilkins CJ, Lew JK. A comparison of propofol and methohexitone as anaesthetic agents for electroconvulsive therapy. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1988;5:279–286.

82. Miller-Pitt PL, Elcock BJ, Maharaj M. The management of status epilepticus with continuous propofol infusion. Anesth Analg 1994;78:1193–1194.

83. Carrasco G, Cabre L, Sobrepere G, et al. Synergistic sedation with propofol and midazolam in intensive care patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Crit Care Med 1998;26:844–851.

84. Usubiaga JE, Moya F, Wikinski JA, et al. Relationship between the passage of local anesthetics across the blood-brain barrier and their effects on the central nervous system. Br J Anaesth 1967;39:943–947.

85. Ritchie JM, Greene NM. Local anesthetics. In A Gilman, TW Rall, AS Neis, P Talor (eds), Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological basis of Therapeutics (8th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990;311–331.

86. de Jong RH, Wagman IH. Cortical and subcortical electrical effects of IV lidocaine and inhalation anesthetics. Fed Proc 1963;22:187.

87. Wu FL, Razzaghi A, Souney PF. Seizure after lidocaine for bronchoscopy: case report and review of the use of lidocaine in airway anesthesia. Pharmacotherapy 1993;13:72–78.

88. Wagman IH, de Jong RH, Prince DA. Effects of lidocaine on the central nervous system. Anesthesiology 1967;28:155–169.

89. Ryan DW. Accidental intravenous injection of bupivacaine: a complication of obstetrical epidural anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1973;45:907–908.

90. Erdelberg E, Lesse H, Gault FL. Convulsant effects of cocaine. Fed Proc 1960;20:322.

91. Schubert CJ, Wason S, Cocaine toxicity in an infant following intranasal instillation of a four percent cocaine solution. Pediatr Emerg Care 1992;8:82–83.

92. Schou H, Krogh B, Knudsen F. Unexpected cocaine intoxication in a 14 month old child following topical administration. Clin Toxicol 1987;25:419–422.

93. Berry CA, Sanner JH, Keasling HH. A comparison of the anticonvulsant activity of mepivacaine and lidocaine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1961;133:357–363.

94. Richards RK. New concepts on the mechanisms of convulsive and anticonvulsive action. Arch Neurol Psychiat 1963;13:346.

95. Beemer GH, Dawson PJ, Bjorksten AR, et al. Early postoperative seizures in neurosurgical patients administered atracurium and isoflurane. Anaesth Intens Care 1989;17:504–509.

96. Ornstein E, Matteo RS, Young WL, Diaz J. Resistance to metocurine-induced neuromuscular blockade in patients receiving phenytoin. Anesthesiology 1985;63:294–298.

97. Ornstein E, Matteo RS, Schwartz AE, et al. The effects of phenytoin on the magnitude and duration of neuromuscular block following atracurium or vecuronium. Anesthesiology 1987;67:191–196.

98. Jellish WS, Modica PA, Tempelhoff R. Accelerated recovery from pipecuronium in patients with chronic anticonvulsant therapy. J Clin Anesth 1993;5:105–108.

99. Grob D, Harvey AM, Langworthy OR, Lilienthal JL Jr. The administration of di-isopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) to man. 111. Effect on central nervous system with special reference to the electrical activity of the brain. Johns Hopkins Hosp Bull 1947;81:257–266.

100. Toman JEP, Davis JP. The effects of drugs upon the electrical activity of the brain. Pharmacol Rev 1949;1:425–492.

101. Prescott LF, Critchley JA, Balali-Mood M, Pentland B. Effects of microsomal enzyme inductions on paracetamol metabolism in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1981;12:149–154.

102. Fraser DG, Ludden TM, Evens RP, Sutherland EW. Displacement of phenytoin from plasma binding sites by salicylate. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1980;27:165–169.

103. Paxton JW. Effects of aspirin on serum phenytoin kinetics in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1980;27:170–178.

104. Galley AH. Unforeseen complications during dental anesthesia: fits and faints. Proc R Soc Med 1966;59:734–738.

105. Mann PE, Hatt SD, Dixon RA, et al. A minimal increment methohexitone technique in conservative dentistry. A comparison with treatment under local analgesia. Anaesthesia 1971;26:3–21.

Adapted from: Najjar S, Devinsky O, Rosenberg AD, et al. Procedures in epilepsy patients. In: Ettinger AB and Devinsky O, eds. Managing epilepsy and co-existing disorders. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2002;499–513. With permission from Elsevier (www.elsevier.com).

Authored By: 
Orrin Devinsky MD
Souhel Najjar MD
Andrew D Rosenberg MD
I<
Reviewed By: 
Steven C. Schachter MD
on: 
Thursday, April 1, 2004