Support information on page: Infectious States & Seizures > Viral infections

Virus Central Nervous
System Syndrome
Geographic
Distribution
Route/Vector Freqency
DNA viruses:
Herpes viruses
Herpes simplex virus 1 Encephalitis Worldwide Human contact, fluids +++
Meningitis
Herpes simplex virus 2 Encephalitis (neonates) Worldwide Human contact +
Meningitis
Varicella-zoster virus Encephalitis Worldwide Human respiratory, contact ++
Meningitis
Cytomegalovirus Encephalitis Worldwide Human contact, fluids ++
Epstein-Barr virus Encephalitis Worldwide Human saliva +
Meningitis
Human herpesvirus 6 Encephalitis Worldwide Human contact Unknown
Febrile seizures

Adenoviridae
Adenovirus Encephalitis Worldwide Human respiratory +
Meningitis

Papovavirus
Jamestown Canyon virus Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Worldwide Unknown +

RNA viruses:
Upper respiratory viruses
Influenza Encephalitis Worldwide Human respiratory +
Exanthematous viruses viruses
Measles Encephalitis Worldwide Human respiratory ++
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Mumps Encephalitis Worldwide Human respiratory +++
Meningitis

Rhabdoviridae
Rabies Encephalitis Worldwide Animal bite +++

Picornaviridae (enterovirus)
Echovirus Meningo-
encephalitis
Worldwide Fecal-oral +++
Coxsackie Meningo-
encephalitis
Worldwide Fecal-oral +++
Polio Meningitis Worldwide Fecal-oral Rare where vaccinated

Arboviruses
Bunyaviridae
California encephalitis virus Encephalitis North America Mosquito +++
Meningitis

Alphavirus
Eastern equine encephalitis Encephalitis United States, Caribbean, South America Mosquito +
Meningitis
Western equine encephalitis Encephalitis Western/Central United States, South America Mosquito ++
Meningitis

Flaviviridae
Japanese encephalitis Encephalitis China, southeast Asia, India Mosquito ++++
Meningitis
St. Louis encephalitis Encephalitis United States, Caribbean, South America Mosquito +++
Meningitis
West Nile encephalitis Encephalitis Middle East, Africa, United States Mosquito ++
Meningitis

Retroviruses
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Encephalitis Worldwide Human blood, semen ++
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Encephalitis Worldwide Rodent +
Meningitis

+ = infrequent; ++ = occasional; +++ = common; ++++ = very common

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