1. Shorvon SD, Carney MW, Chanarin I, Reynolds EH. The neuropsychiatry of megaloblastic anaemia. BMJ 1980;281:1036–1038.

2. Carl GF, Smith ML. Phenytoin-folate interactions: differing effects of the sodium salt and the free acid of phenytoin. Epilepsia 1992;33:372–377.

3. Dansky LV, Rosenblatt DS, Anderman E. Mechanisms of teratogenesis: folic acid and antiepileptic therapy. Neurology 1992;42[Suppl 5]:32–42.

4. Seligman H, Potasman I, Weller B, et al. Phenytoinfolic acid interaction: a lesson to be learned. Clin Neuropharmacol 1999;22:268–272.

5. Chanarin I, Laidlow J, Longbridge LW, et al. Megaloblastic anaemia due to phenobarbitone. The convulsant action of therapeutic doses of folic acid. BMJ 1960;1:1099.

6. Lee GR. Folate Deficiency: Causes and Management. In GR Lee (ed), Wintrobe’s Clinical Hematology (10th ed). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1999;965–971.

7. Zahn CA, Morrell MJ, Collins SD, et al. Management issues for women with epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neurology 1998;51:949–956.

8. Walters TR. Congenital megaloblastic anemia responsive to N-5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid administration. J Pediatr 1967;70:686.

9. Stephen HE. Sickle Cell Anemia and Associated Hemoglobinopathies. In L Goldman, JC Bennett (eds), Cecil Textbook of Medicine (21st ed). Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000;893–905.

10. Balmaceda CM, Fetell MR. Hematologic and Related Diseases. In LP Rowland (ed), Merritt’s Textbook of Neurology (9th ed). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1995;903–915.

11. Abboud MR, Jackson SM, Barredo J, et al. Neurologic complications following bone marrow transplantation for sickle cell disease. Bone Marrow Transplant 1996; 17:405–407.

12. Adams RJ, McKie VC, Hsu L, et al. Prevention of a first stroke by transfusions in children with sickle cell anemia and abnormal results on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. N Engl J Med 1998;339:5–11.

13. Steinberg MH. Management of sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1021–1030.

14. Fabian R, Peters B. Neurological complications of hemoglobin SC disease. Arch Neurol 1984;41:289–292.

15. Greenberg J, Massey E. Cerebral infarction in sickle cell trait. Ann Neurol 1985;18:354–355.

16. Hart RG, Kanter MC. Hematologic disorders and ischemic stroke. A selective review. Stroke 1990;21:1111–1121.

17. Reyes M. Subcortical cerebral infarctions in sickle cell trait. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:516–518.

18. Massey EW, Riggs JE. Neurologic manifestations of hematologic disease. Neurol Clin 1989;7:549–561.

19. Aminoff MJ, Parent JM. Comorbidity in Adults. In J Angel, TA Padley (eds), Epilepsy: a Comprehensive Textbook (1st ed). Philadelphia: Lippincott–Raven, 1997;1957–1970.

20. Kappas A, Sassa S, Galbraith RA, Nordmann Y. The Porphyrias. In CR Scriver, AL Beaudet, WS Sly, D Valle (eds), The Metabolic Base of Inherited Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989;1305–1355.

21. Bonkowsky HL, Sinclair PR, Emery S, Sinclair JF. Seizure management in acute hepatic porphyria: risks of valproate and clonazepam. Neurology 1980; 30:588–592.

22. Sadeh M, Martonovits G, Karni A, Goldhammer Y. Treatment of porphyric convulsions with magnesium sulfate. Epilepsia 1991;32:712–715.

23. Kaplan PW, Lewis DV. Juvenile acute intermittent porphyria with hypercholesterolemia and epilepsy: a case report and review of the literature. J Child Neurol 1986;1:38–45.

24. Birchfield RI, Cowger ML. Acute intermittent porphyria with seizures. Am J Dis Child 1996;112:561–565.

25. Muller WE, Snyder SH. Delta aminolevulinic acid: influences on synaptic GABA receptor binding may explain CNS symptoms of porphyria. Ann Neurol 1977;2:340–342.

26. Lai CW, Hung TP, Lin WSJ. Blindness of cerebral origin in acute intermittent porphyria. Arch Neurol 1977;34:310–312.

27. Kupferschmidt H, Bont A, Schnorf H, et al. Transient cortical blindness and bioccipital brain lesions in two patients with acute intermittent porphyria. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:598–600.

28. Hahn M, Gildemeister OS, Krauss GL, et al. Effects of new anticonvulsants medications on porphyrin synthesis in cultured liver cells: Potential implications for patients with acute porphyria. Neurology 1997;49:97–106.

29. Bonkovsky HL. Porphyrin and Heme Metabolism and the Porphyrias. In D Zakim, TD Boyer (eds), Hepatology: a Textbook of Liver Disease (2nd ed). Philadelphia: Saunders, 1990;378–424.

30. Moore MR. International review of drugs in acute porphyria—1980. Int J Biochem 1980;12:1088–1097.

31. Bonkowsky HL, Schady W. Neurologic manifestations of acute porphyria. Semin Liver Dis 1982;2:108–124.

32. Bylesjo I, Forsgren L, Lithner F, Boman K. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of seizures in patients with acute intermittent porphyria. Epilepsia 1996;37:230–235.

33. Anderson KE. The Porphyries. In L Goldman, JC Bennett (eds), Cecil Textbook of Medicine (21st ed). Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000:Chapter 219, 1123–1130.

34. Anderson KE. The Porphyrias. In D Zakim, T Boyer (eds), Hepatology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1996;417–463.

35. Shedlofsky SI, Bonkowsky HL. Seizure management in the hepatic porphyries: results from a cell-culture model of porphyria. Neurology 1984;34:399.

36. Reynolds NC, Miska RM. Safety of anticonvulsants in hepatic porphyries. Neurology 1981;31:480–484.

37. Mustajoki P, Nordmann Y. Early administration of heme arginate for acute porphyric attacks. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:2004.

38. Krauss GL, Simmons-O’Brian E, Campbell M. Successful treatment of seizures and porphyria with gabapentin. Neurology 1995;45:594.

39. Young NS. Aplastic Anemia and Related Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes. In L Goldman, JC Bennett (eds), Cecil Textbook of Medicine (21st ed). Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000:Chapter 160, 848–853.

40. Blackburn SC, Oliart AD, Garcia Rodriguez LA, Perez Gutthann S. Antiepileptics and blood dyscrasias: a cohort study. Pharmacotherapy 1998;18:1277–1283.

41. Kaufman DW, Kelly JP, Anderson T, Harmon DC, et al. Evaluation of case reports of aplastic anemia among patients treated with felbamate. Epilepsia 1997;38:1265–1269.

42. Kaufman DW, Kelly JP, Jurgelon JM, et al. Drugs in the etiology of agranulocytosis and aplastic anaemia. Eur J Haematol Suppl 1996;60:23–30.

43. Vincent PC. Drug-induced aplastic anaemia and agranulocytosis: incidence and mechanisms. Drugs 1986;31:52.

44. Young NS. Agranulocytosis [Conference]. JAMA 1994;271:935.

45. Scheuer ML. Antiepileptic Drugs. In LP Rowland, DF Klein (eds), Current Neurologic Drugs. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1996;119–151.

46. Suchitra A, Bussel JB. Hematologic toxicity of sodium valproate. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2000;22:62–65.

47. Robins MM. Aplastic anemia secondary to anticonvulsants. Am J Dis Child 1962;104:614.

48. Isaacson S, et al. Fatal aplastic anemia after therapy with Nuvarone (3-methyl-5-phenylhydantoin). JAMA 1956;160:1311.

49. Tyler MW, King EQ. Phenacemide in treatment of epilepsy. JAMA 1951;147:17.

50. Brittingham TE, et al. Reversible erythroid aplasia induced by diphenyl-hydantoin. Arch Intern Med 1964;113:764.

51. Mann LB, Habenicht HA. Fatal bone marrow aplasia associated with the administration of ethosuximide (Zarontin) for petit mal epilepsy. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 1962;27:173.

52. Felbamate linked to aplastic anemia; warning issued on drug’s use. Am J Hosp Pharm 1994;51:2324.

53. French J, Smith M, Faught E, et al. Practice advisory: the use of felbamate in the treatment of patients with intractable epilepsy. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Neurology 1999;52:1540–1545.

54. Young NS, Barrett AJ. The treatment of severe acquired aplastic anemia. Blood 1995;85:3367.

55. Alvarez JS, Delm Castillo JA, Ortiz MJ. Effect of carbamazepine on cyclosporin blood level. Nephron 1991;58:235–236.

56. Gilmore RL. Seizures and antiepileptic drug use in transplant patients. Neurol Clin 1988;6:279–296.

57. Walker RW, Brochstein JA. Neurologic complications of immunosuppressive agents. Neurol Clin 1988;6:261–278.

58. Tefferi A, Silverstein MN. Myeloproliferative Diseases. In L Goldman, JC Bennett (eds), Cecil Textbook of Medicine (21st ed). Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000:Chap- ter 174, 935–941.

59. Davies-Jones GA. Neurological Manifestations of Hematological Disorders. In MJ Aminoff (ed), Neurology and General Medicine: the Neurological Aspects of Medical Disorders (2nd ed). New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1995;219–245.

60. Price RA, Johnson W. The central nervous system in childhood leukemia: I. The arachnoid. Cancer 1973;31:520.

61. Smith HP, Biller J, Kelly DL. Oculomotor palsy with pupillary sparing, coincidental aneurysm, and chronic lymphocytic leukemic meningeal infiltration. Surg Neurol 1981;16:26.

62. Ha K, Kanaya S, Ikeda T, et al. Cortical blindness in a child with acute leukemia. Acta Paediatr Scand 1980;69:781.

63. Schiff D, Batchelor T, Wen PY. Neurologic emergencies in cancer patients. In: Neurol Clin 1998;16:449–483.

64. Feinberg WM, Swenson MR. Cerebrovascular complications of L-asparaginase therapy. Neurology 1988;38:127.

65. Eidelberg D, Sotrel A, Horoupian DS, et al. Thrombotic cerebral vasculopathy associated with herpes zoster. Ann Neurol 1986;19:7.

66. Boogerd W, van der Sande JJ, Kroger R, et al. Effective systemic therapy for spinal epidural metastases from breast carcinoma. Eur J Cancer 1988;25:149.

67. Phillips, PC. Methotrexate toxicity. In DA Rottenberg (ed), Neurological Complications of Cancer Treatment. Boston: Butterworth–Heinemann, 1991;115.

68. O’Sullivan DP. Convulsions associated with cyclosporin A. BMJ 1985;290:858.

69. Davis DG, Patchell RA. Neurologic complications of bone marrow transplantation. Neurol Clin 1988;6:377–387.

70. Graus F, Saiz A, Sierra J, et al. Neurologic complications of autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients with leukemia: a comparative study. Neurology 1996;46:1004–1009.

71. Patchell RA. Neurological complications of organ transplantations. Ann Neurol 1994;36:688.

72. Gallardo D, Ferra C, Berlanga JJ, et al. Neurologic complications after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1996;18:1135–1139.

73. Snider S, Bashir R, Bierman P. Neurologic complications after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for Hodgkin’s disease. Neurology 1994;44:681.

74. Patchell RA, White CL, Clark AW, et al. Neurologic complications of bone marrow transplantation. Neurology 1985;35:300–306.

75. Kahan BD, Flecher SM, Lorber MI, et al. Complications of cyclosporine-prednisone immunosuppression in 402 renal allograft recipients exclusively followed at a single center for from one to five years. Transplantation 1987;43:197–204.

76. Martin AB, Bricker JT, Fishman M, et al. Neurologic complications of heart transplantation in children. J Heart Lung Transplant 1992;11:933–942.

77. McEnery PT, Nathan J, Bates SR, Daniels SR. Convulsions in children undergoing renal transplantation. J Pediatr 1989;115:532.

78. Antonini G, Ceschin V, Morino S, et al. Early neurologic complications following allogeneic bone marrow transplant for leukemia: a prospective study. Neurology 1998;50:1441–1445.

79. Marcus RE, Goldman JM. Convulsions due to high- dose busulfan. Lancet 1984;2:1463–1464.

80. Ghany AM, Tutschka PJ, McGhee RB, et al. Cyclosporine-associated seizures in bone marrow transplant recipients given busulfan and cyclophosphamide preparative therapy. Transplantation 1991;52:310–315.

81. Sureda A, Perez de Oteyza J, Garcia-Larana J, Odriozola J. High-dose busulfan and seizures. Ann Intern Med 1989;111:543–544.

82. Cilio MR, Danhaive O, Gadisseux JF, et al. Unusual cyclosporin related neurological complications in recipients of liver transplants. Arch Dis Child 1993;68:405–407.

83. Boogaerts MA, Zachee P, Verwilghen RL. Cyclosporin, methylprednisolone, and convulsions. Lancet 1982;2:1216–1217.

84. Durrant S, Chipping PM, Palmer S, Gordon-Smith EC. Cyclosporin A, methylprednisolone, and convulsions. Lancet 1982;2:829–830.

85. Joss DV, Barrett AJ, Kendra JR, et al. Hypertension and convulsions in children receiving cyclosporin A. Lancet 1982;1:906.

86. Thompson CB, June CH, Sullivan KM, Thomas ED. Association between cyclosporin neurotoxicity and hypomagnesemia. Lancet 1984;2:1116–1120.

87. De Groen PC, Aksamit AJ, Rakela J, et al. Central nervous system toxicity after liver transplantation: the role of cyclosporine and cholesterol. N Engl J Med 1987;317:861–866.

88. Eidelman BH, Abu-Elmagd K, Wilson J, et al. Neurologic complications of FK 506. Transplant Proc 1991;23:3175–3178.

89. Shihab F, Barry JM, Bennett WM, et al. Cytokine-related encephalopathy induced by OKT3: incidence and predis- posing factors. Transplant Proc 1993;25:564–565.

90. Ruggenenti P, Remuzzi G. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and related disorders. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1990;4:219–241.

91. Sheth KJ, Swick HM, Haworth N. Neurological involvement in hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Ann Neurol 1986;19:90–93.

92. Moake J. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Thromb Haemost 1995;74:240–245.

93. Parker Levine S. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura and Other Forms of Nonimmunologic Platelet Destruction. In GR Lee (ed) Wintrobe’s Clinical Hematology (10th ed). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

94. Asada Y, Sumiyoshi A, Hayashi T, et al. Immunohistochemistry of vascular lesion in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, with special reference to factor VIII related antigen. Thromb Res 1985;38:469–479.

95. Norkin SA, Freedman HH, Evans GW. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in siblings. Am J Med 1967;43:294–303.

96. Wallace DC, Lovric A, Clubb JS, Carseldine DB. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in four siblings. Am J Med 1975;58:724–734.

97. Fuchs WE, George JN, Dotin LN, Sears DA. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: occurrence two years apart during late pregnancy in two sisters. JAMA 1976;235:2126–2127.

98. Hellman RM, Jackson DV, Buss DH. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in HLA-identical siblings. Ann Intern Med 1980;93:283–284.

99. Ridolfi RL, Bell WR. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: report of 25 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1981;60:413–428.

100. Blum AS, Drislane FW. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Neurology 1996;47:1079–1081.

101. Bale JF, Brasher C, Siegler RL. CNS manifestations of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome: relationship to metabolic alterations and prognosis. Am J Dis Child 1980;134:869–872.

102. Kwaan HC. Clinicopathologic features of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Semin Hematol 1987;24:71–81.

103. Bukowski RM. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: a review. Prog Hemost Thromb 1982;6:287–337.

104. Garrett WT, Chang CW, Bleck TP. Altered mental status in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is secondary to nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Ann Neurol 1996;40:245–246.

105. Fagan KJ, Lee SI. Prolonged confusion following convulsions due to generalized nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Neurology 1990;40:1689–1694.

106. Mizock BA, Ramsey RG, Barreta T. Computed tomo- graphic brain scan of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Scand J Haematol 1984;32:271–274.

107. Kay AC, Solberg LA, Nichols DA, Petitt RM. Prognostic significance of computed tomography of the brain in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Mayo Clin Proc 1991;66:602–607.

108. Goodman A, Ramos R, Petrelli M, et al. Gingival biopsy in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Ann Intern Med 1978;89:501–504.

109. Nishioka GJ, Chilcoat CC, Aufdemorte TB, Clare N. The gingival biopsy in the diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1988;65:580–585.

110. Lichtin AE, Schreiber AD, Hurwitz S, et al. Efficacy of intensive plasmapheresis in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:2122–2126.

111. Rock GA, Shumak KH, Buskard NA, et al. Comparison of plasma exchange with plasma infusion in the treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. N Engl J Med 1991;325:393–397.

112. Harkness DR, Byrnes JJ, Lian EC, et al. Hazard of platelet transfusion in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. JAMA 1981;246:1931–1933.

113. Schafer AI. Hemorrhagic disorders: mixed abnormalities. In L Goldman, JC Bennett (eds), Cecil Textbook of Medicine (21st ed). Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000;1013–1016.

114. Fischer SP, Lee J, Zatuchni J, et al. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in status epilepticus. Thromb Haemost 1977;38:909–913.

115. Yuen AW, Bihari DJ. Multiorgan failure and disseminated and intravascular coagulation in severe convulsive seizures [Letter]. Lancet 1992;340:618.

116. Felcher A, Commichau C, Cao Q, et al. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and status epilepticus. Neurology 1998;51:629–631.

117. Schaub JE, Williamson PJ, Barnes EW, Trewby PN. Multisystem adverse reaction to lamotrigine. Lancet 1994;344:481.

118. Chattergoon DS, McGuigan MA, Koren G, et al. Multi-organ dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation in children receiving lamotrigine and valproic acid. Neurology 1997;49:1442–1443.

119. Kis B, Szupera Z, Mezei Z, et al. Valproate treatment and platelet function: the role of arachidonate metabolites. Epilepsia 1999;40:307–310.

Reviewed By: 
Steven C. Schacter, MD