1. Berg AT. The epidemiology of seizures and epilepsy in children. In S Shinnar, N Amir, D Branski (eds), Childhood Seizures. Basel: S Karger, 1995;1–10.

2. Hauser WA, Hesdorffer DC. Epilepsy: Frequency, Causes and Consequences. New York: Demos Publications, 1990;2–51.

3. Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Kurland LT. Prevalence of epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota: 1940–1980. Epilepsia 1991;32:429–445.

4. Hauser WA. The prevalence and incidence of convulsive disorders in children. Epilepsia 1994;2[Suppl 35]:1–6.

5. Goulden KJ, Shinnar S, Koller H, et al. Epilepsy in children with mental retardation: a cohort study. Epilepsia 1991;32:690–697.

6. Kiely M. The prevalence of mental retardation. Epidemiol Rev 1987;9:194–218.

7. Murphy CC, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Decoufle P, Drews CD. The administrative prevalence of mental retardation in 10-year-old children in metropolitan Atlanta, 1985 through 1987. Am J Public Health 1995;85(3):319–323.

8. Blomquist HK, Gustavson KH, Holmgren G. Mild mental retardation in children in a northern Swedish county. J Ment Defic Res 1981;25(pt 3):169–186.

9. Hasan Z, Hasan A. report on a population survey of mental retardation in Pakistan. Int J Ment Health 1981;19:23–27.

10. Narayanan HS. A study of the prevalence of mental retardation in Southern India. Int J Ment Health 1981;10:28–36.

11. Zaman SS, Khan NZ, Durkin MS, Islam S. Childhood Disabilities in Bangladesh. Dhaka: Protibondi Foundation, 1992.

12. Durkin MS, Hasan ZM, Hasan KZ. Prevalence and correlates of mental retardation among children in Karachi, Pakistan. Am J Epidemiol 1998;147(3):281–288.

13. Stein ZA, Durkin MS, Belmont L. Serious mental retardation in developing countries: an epidemiological approach. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1986;477:8–21.

14. Susser M, Hauser WA, Kiely JL, et al. Quantitative estimates of prenatal and perinatal risk factors for perinatal mortality, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and epilepsy. In JM Freeman (ed), Prenatal and Perinatal Factors Associated with Brain Disorders. NIH Publ. No. 85-1149. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health, 1985;359–439.

15. Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH. Obstetric complications as risk factors for cerebral palsy or seizure disorders. JAMA 1984:251:1843–1848.

16. Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH. Antecedents of seizure disorders in early childhood. Am J Dis Child 1986;140:1053–1061.

17. Bax MCO. Terminology and classification of cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1964;6:295–297.

18. Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH. Antecedents of cerebral palsy: I. Univariate analysis of risk. Am J Dis Child 1985;139:1031–1038.

19. Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH. Antecedents of cerebral palsy. Multivariate analysis of risk. N Engl J Med 1986;315:81–86.

20. Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH. The asymptomatic newborn and risk of cerebral palsy. Am J Dis Child 1987;141:1333–1335.

21. Trevathan E, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Murphy CC, Ding G. Epilepsy among children with mental retardation. Ann Neurol 1988;28:321.

22. Murphy CC, Trevathan E, Yeargin-Allsopp M. Prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in 10-year-old children: results from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Study. Epilepsia 1995;36:866–872.

23. Forsgren L, Edvinsson SO, Blomquist HK, et al. Epilepsy in a population of mentally retarded children and adults. Epilepsy Res 1990;6:234–248.

24. Steffenburg U, Hagberg G, Viggedal G, Kyllerman M. Active epilepsy in mentally retarded children: I. Prevalence and additional neuro impairments. Acta Paediatr 1995;84:1147–1152.

25. Nevo Y, Shinnar S, Samuel E, et al. Unprovoked seizures and developmental disabilities: clinical characteristics of children referred to a child development center. Pediatr Neurol 1995;13:235–241.

26. Commission on Epidemiology and Prognosis, International League Against Epilepsy. Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy. Epilepsia 1993;34:592–596.

27. Benedetti MD, Shinnar S, Cohen H, et al. Risk factors for epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and/or mental retardation. Epilepsia 1987;27:614.

28. Hauser WA, Shinnar S, Cohen H, et al. Clinical predictors of epilepsy among children with cerebral palsy and/or mental retardation. Neurology 1987;37[Suppl 1]:150.

29. Eriksson K, Erila T, Kivimaki T, Koivikko M. Evolution of epilepsy in children with mental retardation: five-year experience in 78 cases. Am J Ment Retard 1998;102:464–472.

30. Kudrjavcev T, Schoenberg BS, Kurland LT, Groover RV. Cerebral palsy: survival rates, associated handicaps, and distribution by clinical subtype (Rochester, MN, 1950–1976). Neurology 1985;35:900–903.

31. Sussova J, Seidl Z, Faber J. Hemiparetic forms of cerebral palsy in relation to epilepsy and mental retardation. Dev Med Child Neurol 1990;32:792–795.

32. Mrabet A, Bouteraa M, Gouider R. Epilepsy and cerebral palsy. Epilepsia 1993;34[Suppl 2]:19.

33. Hadjipanayis A, Hadjichristodoulou C, Youroukos S. Epilepsy in patients with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997;39:659–663.

34. Zafeiriou DI, Kontopoulos EE, Tsikoulas I. Characteristics and prognosis of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy. J Child Neurol 1999;14:289–294.

35. von Wendt L, Rantakallio P, Saukkonen AL, Makinen H. Epilepsy and associated handicaps in a 1 year birth cohort in northern Finland. Eur J Pediatr 1985;144:149–151.

36. Sillanpaa M. Epilepsy in children: prevalence, disability, and handicap. Epilepsia 1992;33:444–449.

37. Steffenburg U, Hagberg G, Kyllerman M. Characteristics of seizures in a population-based series of mentally retarded children with active epilepsy. Epilepsia 1996;37:850–856.

38. Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Kurland LT. Incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures in Rochester, Minnesota: 1935–1984. Epilepsia 1993;34:453–468.

39. Braathen G, Theorell K. A general hospital population of childhood epilepsy. Acta Paediatr 1995;84:1143–1146.

40, Berg AT, Shinnar S, Levy SR, Testa FM. Newly diagnosed epilepsy in children: presentation at diagnosis. Epilepsia 1999;40:445–452.

41. Arpino C, Curatolo P, Stazi MA, et al. Differing risk factors for cerebral palsy in the presence of mental retardation and epilepsy. J Child Neurol 1999;14:151–155.

42. Aksu F. Nature and prognosis of seizures in patients with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1990;32:661–668.

43. Shinnar S, Berg AT, Moshe SL, et al. The risk of seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked afebrile seizure in childhood: an extended follow-up. Pediatrics 1996;98:216–225.

44. Sidenvall R, Forsgren L, Heijbel J. Prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy in children in northern Sweden. Seizure 1996;5:139–146.

45. Huttenlocher PR, Hapke RJ. A follow-up study of intractable seizures in childhood. Ann Neurol 1990;28:699–705.

46. Hosking G, Miles R, Winstanley P. Seizures in patients with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1990;32:1026–1027.

47. DeLorenzo RJ, Towne AR, Pellock JM, et al. Status epilepticus in children, adults and the elderly. Epilepsia 1992;33[Suppl 4]:S15–S25.

48. Gross-Tsur V, Shinnar S. Convulsive status epilepticus in children. Epilepsia 1993;34[Suppl 1]:S12–S20.

49. Hauser WA. Status epilepticus: epidemiologic considerations. Neurology 1990;40[Suppl 2]:9–13.

50. Maytal J, Shinnar S, Moshe SL, Alvarez LA. Low morbidity and mortality of status epilepticus in children. Pediatrics 1989;83:323–331.

51. Dodson WE, DeLorenzo RJ, Pedley TA, et al. The treatment of convulsive status epilepticus: recommendations of the Epilepsy Foundation of America’s working group on status epilepticus. JAMA 1993;270:854–859.

52. Shinnar S, Pellock JM, Moshe SL, et al. In whom does status epilepticus occur? Age-related differences in children. Epilepsia 1997;38:907–914.

53. Sillanpaa M, Jalava M, Shinnar S. Status epilepticus in a population based cohort with childhood onset epilepsy in Finland. Epilepsia 1998;39[Suppl 6]:219–220.

54. Driscoll SM, Towne AR, Pellock JM, DeLorenzo RJ. Recurrent status epilepticus in children (abstract). Neurology 1990;40[Suppl 1]:297.

55. Shinnar S, Maytal J, Krasnoff L, Moshe SL. Recurrent status epilepticus in children. Ann Neurol 1992;31:598–604.

56. Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Elveback LR. Remission of seizures and relapse in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1979;20:729–737.

57. Berg AT, Shinnar S. Relapse following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs: a meta-analysis. Neurology 1994;44:601–608.

58. Berg AT, Hauser WA, Shinnar S. The Prognosis of Childhood-Onset Epilepsy. In S Shinnar, N Amir, D Branski (eds), Childhood Seizures. Basel: S Karger, 1995;93–99.

59. Cockerell OC, Johnson AL, Sander JW, Shorvon SD. Prognosis of epilepsy: a review and further analysis of the first nine years of the British National General Practice Study of Epilepsy, a prospective population- based study. Epilepsia 1997;38:31–46.

60. Sillanpaa M, Jalava M, Kaleva O, Shinnar S. Long- term prognosis of seizures with onset in childhood. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1715–1722.

61. Berg AT, Shinnar S, Chadwick D. Discontinuing antiepileptic drugs. In J Engel Jr, TA Pedley (eds), Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1997;1275–1284.

62. Shinnar S, Berg AT, Moshe SL, et al. Discontinuing antiepileptic drugs in children with epilepsy: a prospective study. Ann Neurol 1994;35:534–545.

63. Berg AT, Levy SR, Novotny EJ, Shinnar S. Predictors of intractable epilepsy in childhood: a case control study. Epilepsia 1996;37:24–30.

64. Berg AT, Shinnar S, Testa FM, et al. Prediction of early intractability in childhood-onset epilepsy. Epilepsia 1999;40[Suppl 7]:160.

65. Steffenburg U, Hedstrom A, Lindroth A, et al. Intractable epilepsy in a population-based series of mentally retarded children. Epilepsia 1998;39:767–775.

66. Fois A, Tomaccini D, Balestri P, et al. Intractable epilepsy: etiology, risk factors and treatment. Clin Electroencephalogr 1988;19:68–73.

67. Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Elveack LR. Mortality in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1980;21:339–412.

68. Cockerell OC, Johnson AL, Sander JWAS, et al. Mortality from epilepsy: results from a retrospective population-based study. Lancet 1994;344:918–921.

69. Henriksen PB, Juul-Jensen P, Lund M. The mortality of epileptics. In: RDC Brackenridge (ed), Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Life Assurance Medicine. London: Putnam, 1970.

70. Brorson LO, Wranne L. Long-term prognosis in childhood epilepsy: survival and seizure prognosis. Epilepsia 1987;29:324–330.

71. Forsgren L, Edvinsson SO, Nystrom L, Blomquist HK. Influence of epilepsy on mortality in mental retardation: an epidemiologic study. Epilepsia 1996; 37:956–963.

72. Berg AT, Shinnar S. The contributions of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood seizures and epilepsy. J Child Neurol 1994;9[Suppl 2]:19–26.

73. Dreifuss FE. Prognosis of childhood seizure disorders: present and future. Epilepsia 1994;35[Suppl 2]:S30–34.

Adapted from: D'Amelio M, Shinnar S, and Hauser WA. Epilepsy in children with mental retardation and cerebral palsy. In: Devinsky O and Westbrook LE, eds. Epilepsy and Developmental Disabilities. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2001;3–16.
With permission from Elsevier (www.elsevier.com).