1. Aretaeus; Adams F, trans-ed. The Extant Works of Arataeus the Cappodocian. London: Printed for the Sydenham Society, 1856.

2. Galen; Daremberg C, trans. Oeuvres Anatomiques, Physiologiques, et Madicales de Galien. Paris: J. B. Bailliere, 1854.

3. Kocher T. Chirurgische beitrage zur phisiologie des gehirns und ruckenmarks. Deutsche Zeitschr F Chir 1893;35:433–494, 36:1–93.

4. Adams F. The genuine works of Hippocrates. London: Printed for the Sydenham Society, 1849.

5. Jackson JH. Selected writings of John Hughlings Jackson. London: Hodder and Stoughton Ltd, 1931.

6. Horwitz H. Library: historical perspective. Neurosurgery 1999;44:906–910.

7. Jackson JH. Localized convulsions from tumor of the brain. Brain 1882;5:364–374.

8. Horsley V. Brain surgery. BMJ 1886;2:670–675.

9. Horwitz H. Library: historical perspective. Neurosurgery 1995;36:428–432.

10. Bennett A, Godlee SR. Excision of a tumor from the brain. Lancet 1884;2:1090–1091.

11. Adelson PD. The surgical management of epilepsy in children. Contemp Neurosurg 1995;17(23):1–8.

12. Yeh HS, Kashiwagi S, Tew J, Berger T. Surgical management of epilepsy associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg 1990;72:216–223.

13. Hauser W, Annegers J, Kurland L. Prevalence of epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota: 1940–1980. Epilepsia 1991;32:429–445.

14. Luhdorf K, Jensen LK, Plesner AM. Etiology of seizures in the elderly. Epilepsia 1986;27:458–463.

15. Paeschel SM, Louis S, McKnight P. Seizure disorders in Down’s syndrome. Arch Neurol 1991;48:318–320.

16. Brodie M, Shorvon SD, Canger R. Commission on European affairs: appropriate standards of epilepsy care across Europe. Epilepsia 1997;38:1245–1250.

17. Ketz E. Brain Tumours and Epilepsy. In P Vinken, G Bruyn (eds), Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing, 1974;254–269.

18. Black P. Brain tumors (First of two parts). N Engl J Med 1991;324:1471–1476.

19. Rasmussen T, Blundell J. Epilepsy and brain tumour. Clin Neurosurg 1959;7:138–158.

20. Penfield W, Erickson TC, Tarlov I. Relation of intracranial tumors and symptomatic epilepsy. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1940;44:300–315.

21. Le Blanc FE, Rasmussen T. Cerebral Seizures and Brain Tumors. Amsterdam, Netherlands: North Holland Publishing, 1974.

22. Strobos R, Alexander E, Masland R. Brain tumor presenting as convulsive disorder. Diseases of the nervous system. 1958;19:518–522.

23. Cascino G. Epilepsy and brain tumors: implications for treatment. Epilepsia 1990;3:S37–S44.

24. Whittle I, Beaumaont A. Seizures in patients with supratentorial oligodendroglial tumors. Clinicopatho- logical features and management considerations. Acta Neurochir 1995;135:19–24.

25. Olson J, Reidel EM, DeAngelis LM. Long-term outcome of low-grade oligodendroglioma and mixed glioma. Neurology 2000;54:1442–1448.

26. Morris H, Estes ML, Gilmore R, et al. Chronic intractable epilepsy as the only symptom of primary brain tumor. Epilepsia 1993;34:1038–1043.

27. Vecht CJ. Clinical management of brain metastasis. J Neurol 1998;245:127–131.

28. Howng SL, Kwan AL. Intracranial meningioma. Gaoxiong Yi Xue Ke Xue Za Zhi 1992;8:312–319.

28A. Lieu AS, Howng SL. Intracranial meningiomas and epilepsy: incidence, prognosis and influencing factors. Epilepsy Res 2000;38:45-52.

29. Daumas-Duport C, Scheithauer B, Chodkiewicz J, et al. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: a surgically curable tumor of young patients with intractable partial seizures. Neurosurgery 1988;23:545–556.

30. Otsubo H, Hoffman H, Humphreys R, et al. Detection and management of gangliogliomas in children. Surg Neurol 1992;38:371–378.

31. Ventureyra E. Surgery for childhood epilepsy and epileptic syndromes. Contemp Neurosurg 1997;19:1–6.

32. Blume W, Girvin J, Kaufmann J. Childhood brain tumors presenting as chronic uncontrolled focal seizure disorders. Ann Neurol 1982;12:538–541.

33. Sjors K, Blennow G, Lantz G. Seizures as the presenting symptom of brain tumors in children. Acta Paediatr 1993;82:66–70.

34. Williams B, Abbott K, Manson J. Cerebral tumors in children presenting with epilepsy. J Child Neurol 1992;7:291–294.

35. Suarez J, Sfaello Z, Guerrero A, et al. Epilepsy and brain tumors in infants and adolescents. Childs Nerv Syst 1986;2:169–174.

36. Zentner J, Wolf HK, Ostertun B, et al. Surgical treatment of neoplasms associated with medically intractable epilepsy. Neurosurgery 1997;41:378–387.

37. Lee TK, Nakasu Y, Jeffree MA, et al. Indolent glioma: a cause of epilepsy. Arch Dis Child 1989;64:1666–1671.

38. Ventureyra E, Herder S, Mallya B. Temporal lobe gangliogliomas in children. Childs Nerv Syst 1986;2:63–66.

39. Haglund MM, Berger MS, Kunkel DD, et al. Changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid and somatostatin in epileptic cortex associated with low grade glioma. J Neurosurg 1992;77:209–216.

40. Berger MS, Geyer JR, Keles GE, Ojemann GA. Seizure outcome in children with hemispheric tumors and associated intractable epilepsy: the role of tumor removal combined with seizure foci resection. Pediatr Neurosurg 1991;17:185–191.

41. Petroff O, Rothman DL, Behar KL, Mattson RH. Low brain GABA levels associated with poor seizure control. Ann Neurol 1996;40:908–911.

42. Freid I, Kim JH, Spencer DD. Hippocampal pathology in patients with intractable seizures and temporal lobe masses. J Neurosurg 1992;76:735–740.

43. Towle VL, Carder RK, Khorasani L, Lindberg D. Electrocorticographic coherence patterns. J Clin Neurophysiol 1999;16:528–547.

44. Boon P, Williamson P, Fried I, et al. Intracranial, intraaxial, space-occupying lesions in patients with intractable partial seizures: an anatomoclinical, neuropsychological, and surgical correlation. Epilepsia 1991;32:467–476.

45. Berger MS, Ghatan S, Haglund MM, et al. Low grade gliomas associated with intractable epilepsy: seizure outcome utilizing electrocorticography during tumor resection. J Neurosurg 1993;79:62–69.

46. Proposal for revised classification of epilepsy and epileptic syndromes. Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 1989;30:389–399.

47. Morris H, Estes M. Brain Tumors in Chronic Epilepsy. In E Wyllie (ed), The Treatment of Epilepsy: Principles and Practice (2nd ed). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1996;637–639.

48. Weinstock A, Cohen BH. Seizures in Patients with Brain Tumors and Cancer. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.

49. Jack CR. Magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy. Mayo Clin Proc 1996;71:695–711.

50. Henry TR. Neuroimaging in epilepsy. Contemp Neurosurg 1996;18(2):1–8.

51. Bradley WG, Shey RB. MR imaging evaluation of seizures. Radiology 2000;214:651–656.

52. Sperling M. Neuroimaging in epilepsy: recent developments in MR imaging, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission tomography. Neurol Clin 1993;11:883–903.

53. Lee C, Duncan VW, Young AB. Magnetic resonance features of the enigmatic oligodendroglioma. Invest Radiol 1998;33:222–231.

54. Kuroiwa T, Kishiawa T, Kato A, et al. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1994;18:352–356.

55. Boyko O. Adult Brain Tumors. In DD Stark, WG Bradley Jr, (ed), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (3rd ed). St. Louis: Mosby, 1999.

56. Fujii K, Fujita N, Hirabuki N, et al. Neuromas and meningiomas: evaluation of early enhancement with dynamic MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1992;13:1215–1220.

57. Kuzniecky R, de la Sayette V, Ethier R, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy: pathological correlations. Ann Neurol 1987;22:341–347.

58. Sperling MR, Wilson G, Engel J Jr, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in intractable partial epilepsy: correlative studies. Ann Neurol 1986;20:57–62.

59. Theodore WH, Dorwart R, Holmes M, et al. Neuroim- aging in refractory partial seizures: comparison of PET, CT, MRI. Neurology 1986;36:750–759.

60. Henry TR, Sutherling WW, Engel J Jr, et al. Interictal cerebral metabolism in partial epilepsies of neocortical origin. Epilepsy Res 1991;10:174–182.

61. DeWitte O, Levivier M, Violon P, et al. Prognostic value of positron emission tomography with [18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose in the low-grade glioma. Neurosurgery 1996;39:470–477.

62. Derlon JM, Petit-Taboue MC, Chapon F, et al. The in vivo metabolic pattern of low-grade brain glioma: a positron emission tomographic study using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 11C-l-methylmethionine. Neurosurgery 1997;40:276–288.

63. Duncan R, Patterson J, Roberts R, et al. Ictal/post-ictal SPECT in the presurgical localization of complex partial seizures. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1993;56:141–148.

64. O’Brien TJ, So EL, Mullan MB, et al. Subtraction SPECT co-registered to MRI improves postictal SPECT localization of seizure foci. Neurology 1999;52:137–146.

65. Lazareff JA, Bockhorst HJ, Curran J, et al. Pediatric low-grade gliomas: prognosis with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Neurosurgery 1998;43:809–818.

66. Graves EE, Nelson SJ, Vigneron DB, et al. A preliminary study of the prognostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in gamma knife radiosurgery of recurrent malignant gliomas. Neuro- surgery 2000;46:319–328.

67. Nimsky C, Ganslandt O, Kober H, et al. Integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging supported by magnetoencephalography in functional neuronavigation. Neurosurgery 1999;44:1249–1256.

68. Atlas SW, Howard RS, Maldjian J, et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of regional brain activity in patients with intracerebral gliomas: findings implications and clinical management. Neurosurgery 1996;38:329–338.

69. Patel S, Breneman JC, Warnick RE, et al. Permanent iodine-125 interstitial implants for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Neurosurgery 2000;46:1123–1130.

70. Valtonen S, Timonen U, Toivanen P, et al. Interstitial chemotherapy with carmustine-loaded polymers for high-grade glioma: a randomized double-blind study. Neurosurgery 1997;41:44–49.

71. Wang CC, Li J, Lee T. The delivery of BCNU to brain tumors. J Control Release 1999;61:21–41.

72. Westphal M, Daumas-Duport C, Thoron L, et al. Gliadel (polifeprosan 20 with carmustine 3.85% implant): a multinational phase III randomized double-blind trial in newly diagnosed malignant glioma. Proc Ann Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 1999;18:A594.

73. Osoba D, Brada M, Yung WK, Prados M. Health-related quality of life in patients treated with temozolomide versus procarbazine for recurrent glioblastoma multi- forme. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1481–1491.

74. Yung WK, Albright RE, Olson J, et al. A phase II study of temozolomide vs. procarbazine in patients with glioblastoma multiforme at first relapse. Br J Cancer 2000;83:588–593.

75. Prados M, Yung A, Chang S, et al. A phase II trial of Temodal (temozolamide) in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma at first relapse. Proc Ann Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 1999;18:A533.

76. Niranjan A, Lunsford LD. Radiosurgery: where we were, are, and may be in the third millennium. Neurosurgery 2000;46:531–543.

77. Consensus statement on stereotactic radiosurgery quality improvement. Neurosurgery 1994;34:193–199.

78. Grabb PA, Lunsford LD, Albright AL, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for glial neoplasms of childhood. Neurosurgery 1996;38:696–702.

79. Chen JC, Petrovich Z, O’Day S, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of metastatic disease of the brain. Neurosurgery 2000;47:268–281.

80. Rutigliano MJ, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, et al. The cost effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery versus surgical resection in the treatment of solitary metastatic brain tumors. Neurosurgery 1995;37:445–455.

81. Boarini D, Beck D, VanGilder J. Postoperative prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy in cerebral gliomas. Neurosurgery 1985;16:290–292.

82. Foy P, Chadwick D, Rajgopalan N, et al. Do prophylactic anticonvulsant drugs alter the pattern of seizures after craniotomy? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1992;55:753–757.

83. Cohen N, Strauss G, Lew R, et al. Should prophylactic anticonvulsants be administered to patients with newly diagnosed cerebral metastases? A retrospective analysis. J Clin Oncol 1988;6:1621–1624.

84. Mahaley M, Dudka L. The role of anticonvulsant medications in the management of patients with anaplastic gliomas. Surg Neurol 1981;16:399–401.

85. Glantz MJ, Cole BF, Forsyth PA, et al. Practice parameter: Anticonvulsant prophylaxis in patient with newly diagnosed brain tumors. Neurology 2000;54:1886–1893.

86. North J. Anticonvulsant prophylaxis in neurosurgery. Br J Neurosurg 1989;3:425–428.

87. North J, Hanieh A, Challen R, et al. Postoperative epilepsy: a double-blind trial of phenytoin after craniotomy. Lancet 1980;1:384–386.

88. Posner J. Neurologic Complications of Cancer. Philadelphia: FA Davis Co, 1995.

89. Wong DD, Longenecker RG, Liepman MI, et al. Phenytoin-dexamethasone: a possible drug-drug interaction. JAMA 1985;254:2062–2063.

90. Chalk J, Ridgeway K, Brophy T, et al. Phenytoin impairs the bioavailability of dexamethasone in neurological and neurosurgical patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1984;47:1087–1090.

91. Kikuchi K, McCormick C, Neuwelt E. Immunosuppression by phenytoin: implication for altered immune competence in brain-tumor patients. J Neurosurg 1984;61:1085–1090.

92. Muller PJ, Tator CH, Bloom M. The effect of phenobarbital on the toxicity and tumoricidal activity of CCNU in a murine brain model. J Neurosurg 1980;52:359–366.

93. Neef C, Voogd-van derStraaten I. An interaction between cytostatic and anticonvulsant drugs. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1988;43:372–375.

94. Grossman SA, Sheilder VR, Gilbert MR. Decreased phenytoin levels in patients receiving chemotherapy. Am J Med 1989;87:505–510.

95. Momon HJ, Wen PY, Burns AC, Loeffler JS. Allergic skin reactions to anticonvulsant medication in patients receiving cranial radiation therapy. Epilepsia 1999;40:341–344.

96. Hoang-Xuan K, Delattre JY, Poisson M. StevensJohnson syndrome in a patient receiving cranial irradiation and carbamazepine. Neurology 1990;40:1144–1145.

97. Taylor L, Posner J. Phenobarbital rheumatism in patients with brain tumor. Ann Neurol 1989;25:92–94.

98. Leestma J, Annegers JF, Brodie MJ. Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy: observations from a large clinical development programme. Epilepsia 1997;38:47–55.

99. Buttner A, Gall C, Mall C, Weis S. Unexpected death in patients with symptomatic epilepsy due to glial brain tumors—a report of two cases. Forensic Sci Int 1999;100:127–136.

100. Rogers LR, Morris HH, Lupica K. Effect of cranial irradiation on seizure frequency in adults with low-grade astrocytoma and medically intractable epilepsy. Neurology 1993;43:1599–1601.

101. Moriarty GL, Dunn ME, Frost MD, et al. Contribution of radiotherapy and chemotherapy to seizure outcome after brain tumor resection. Epilepsia 1999;40:209–210(abst).

102. Cibula JE, Gilmore RL. Secondary epileptogenesis in humans. J Clin Neurophysiol 1997;14:111–127.

103. Blume W, Pillay N. Electrographic and clinical correlates of secondary bilateral synchrony. Epilepsia 1985;26:636–641.

104. Sammaritano M, De Lotbiniere A, Andermann F, et al. False lateralization by surface EEG of seizure onset in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and gross focal cerebral lesions. Ann Neurol 1987;21:361–369.

105. Rosenbaum TJ, Laxer KD, Vessely M, Brewster Smith W. Subdural electrodes for seizure focus localization. Neurosurgery 1986;19:73–81.

106. Jayakar P, Duchowny M, Resnick TJ, et al. Localization of seizure foci: pitfalls and caveats. J Clin Neurophysiol 1991;8:414–431.

107. Wada J. Intracarotid injection of sodium amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance: experimental and clinical observation. J Neurosurg 1960;17:266–282.

108. Khajavi K, Comair YG, Wyllie E, et al. Surgical management of pediatric tumor-associated epilepsy. J Child Neurol 1999;14:15–25.

109. Morris H, Luders H, Hahn J, et al. Neurophysiological techniques as an aid to surgical treatment of primary brain tumors. Ann Neurol 1986;19:559–567.

110. Spencer D, Spencer S, Mattson R, Williamson P. Intracerebral masses in patients with intractable partial epilepsy. Neurology 1984;34:432–436.

111. Drake J, Hoffman H, Kobayashi J. Surgical management of children with temporal lobe epilepsy and mass lesions. Neurosurgery 1987;21:792–797.

112. Awad I, Rosenfeld J, Ahl J. Intractable epilepsy and structural lesions of the brain: mapping, resection strategies and seizure outcome. Epilepsia 1991;32:179–186.

113. Hirsch J, Sainte Rose C, Pierre-Kahn A, et al. Benign astrocytic and oligodendrocytic tumors of the cerebral hemispheres in children. J Neurosurg 1989;70:568–572.

114. Soffietti R, Chio A, Giordana MT, et al. Prognostic factors in well-differentiated cerebral astrocytomas in the adult. Neurosurgery 1989;24:686–692.

115. Fried I, Kim JH, Spencer DD, et al. Limbic and neocortical gliomas associated with intractable seizures: A distinct clinicopathological group. Neurosurgery 1994;34:815–824.

116. Cascino GD, Kelly PJ, Hirschorn KA, et al. Stereo- tactic resection of intraaxial cerebral lesions in partial epilepsy. Mayo Clin Proc 1990;65:1053–1060.

117. Gonzalez D, Elvidge AR. On the occurrence of epilepsy caused by astrocytoma of the cerebral hemispheres. J Neurosurg 1962;19:470–482.

118. Otsubo H, Hoffmann HJ, Humphreys RP, et al. Evaluation, surgical approach and outcome of seizure patients w,8–212.

119. Tran TA, Spencer SS, Javidan M, et al. Significance of spikes recorded on intraoperative electrocorticography in patients with brain tumor and epilepsy. Epilepsia 1997;38:1132–1139.

120. Pilcher WH, Sybergeld DL, Berger MS, Ojemann GA. Intraoperative electrocorticography during tumor resection: impact on seizure outcome in patients with gangliogliomas. J Neurosurg 1993;78:891–902.

121. Penfield W. Epilepsy and the Functional Anatomy of the Human Brain. Boston: Little, Brown, 1954.

122. Kleihues P, Burger PC, Scheithauer BW. Histological Typing of Tumors of the Central Nervous System. Berlin: Springer, 1993.

123. Greenberg M. Handbook of Neurosurgery (4th ed). Lakeland, FL: Greenberg Graphics, 1997.

124. Freid I, Kim JH, Spencer DD, et al. Limbic and neo- cortical gliomas associated with intractable seizures: a distinct clinicopathological group. Neurosurgery 1994;34:815–824.

125. Peipmeier JM, Freid I, Makuch R. Low-grade astrocytomas may arise from different astrocyte lineages. Neurosurgery 1993;33:627–632.

126. Campbell JW, Polack IF, Martinez AJ, et al. High- grade astrocytoma in children: radiologically complete resection is associated with an excellent long-term prognosis. Neurosurgery 1996;38:258–264.

127. Barker FG, Chang SM, Gutin PH, et al. Survival and functional status after resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Neurosurgery 1998;42:709–723.

128. Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Bissonette JD, et al. Survival benefit of stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with malignant glial neoplasms. Neurosurgery 1997;41:776–785.

129. Shrieve DC, Alexander E III, Wen PY, et al. comparison of stereotactic radiosurgery and brachytherapy in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Neurosurgery 1995;36:275–284.

130. Laws ER, Taylor WF, Clifton MB, et al. Neurosurgical management of low-grade astrocytomas of the cerebral hemispheres. J Neurosurg 1984;61:661–673.

131. Reis Filho JS, Netto MR, Sluminsky BG, et al. Oligodendroglioma—a pathological and clinical study of 15 cases. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 1999;57:249–254.

132. Burger PC, Rawlings C, Cox EB, et al. Clinicopatho- logic correlations in the oligodendroglioma. Cancer 1987;59:1345–1352.

133. Bauman G, Lote K, Larson D, et al. Pretreatment factors predict overall survival for patients with low grade glioma—a recursive partitioning analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999;45:923–929.

134. Salu J. Oligodendrogliomas—current state V–clinical peculiarities of the oligodendrogliomas. Neurochirugie 1999;10:394–396.

135. Rizk T, Mottolose C, Bouffett E, et al. Cerebral oligodendrogliomas in children: an analysis of 15 cases. Childs Nerv Syst 1996;12:527–529.

136. Saito A, Nakazato Y. Evaluation of malignant features of oligodendroglial tumors. Clin Neuropathol 1999;18:61–73.

137. Morris H, Matkovic, Z, Estes ML, et al. Ganglioglioma and intractable epilepsy: clinical and neurophysiologic features and predictors of outcome after surgery. Epilepsia 1998;39:307–313.

138. Soffietti R, Ruda R, Bradac GB, Schiffer D. PCV chemotherapy of recurrent oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Neurosurgery 1998;43:1066–1073.

139. Craincross J, Ueki K, Zlatescu MC, et al. Specific genetic predictors of chemotherapeutic response and survival in patients with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1473–1479.

140. Courville CB. Ganglioglioma: tumor of the central nervous system: review of the literature and report of two cases. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1930;24:438–491.

141. Celli P, Nofrone I, Palma L, et al. Cerebral oligodendroglioma: prognostic factors and life history. Neurosurgery 1994;35:1018–1035.

142. Mork S, Lindeggard KF, Halvorsen TB, et al. Oligodendroglioma: incidence and biological behavior in a defined population. J Neurosurg 1985;63:881–889.

143. Johnson JH Jr, Hariharan S, Berman J, et al. Clinical outcome of pediatric gangliogliomas: ninety-nine cases over 20 years. Pediatr Neurosurg 1997;27:203–207.

144. Zimmerman RA, Bilaniuk LT. Computed tomography of intracerebral gangliogliomas. J Comput Tomogr 1979;2:63–66.

145. Lang FF, Epstein FJ, Ransohoff J, et al. Central nervous system gangliogliomas, part two: clinical outcome. J Neurosurg 1993;79:867–873.

146. Cervera-Pierot P, Varlet P, Chodkiewicz JP, DaumasDuport C. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors located in the caudate nucleus area: report of four cases. Neurosurgery 1997;40:1065–1070.

147. Whittle IR, Dow GR, Lammie GA, Wardlaw J. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour with discrete bilateral multifocality: further evidence for a germinal origin. Br J Neurosurg 1999;13:508–511.

148. Taratuto A, Pomata H, Sevlever G, et al. Dysembryo- plastic neuroepithelial tumor: morphological, immunocytochemical, and deoxyribonucleic acid analysis in a pediatric series clinical study. Neurosurgery 1995;36:474–481.

149. Honavar M, Janota I, Polkey CE. Histological heterogeneity of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: identification and differential diagnosis in a series of 74 patients. Histopathology 1999;34:342–356.

150. Kirkpatrick P, Honaver M, Janota I, Polkey C. Control of temporal lobe epilepsy following en bloc resection of low-grade tumors. J Neurosurg 1993;78:19–25.

151. Taylor DC, Falconer MD. Clinical, socioeconomic, and psychological changes after temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. Br J Psychiatry 1968;114:1247–1261.

152. Andermann LF, Savard G, Meencke HJ, et al. Psychosis after resection of ganglioglioma or DNET: evidence for an association. Epilepsia 1999;40:83–87.

153. Black PM. Meningiomas. Neurosurgery 1993;32:643–657.

154. Black PM. Brain tumors (second of two parts). N Engl J Med 1991;324:1555–1564.

155. Wara W, Sheline GE, Newman H, et al. Radiation therapy for meningiomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1975;123:435–438.

156. Collins VP, Mordenskjold M, Dumanski JP. The molecular genetics of meningiomas. Brain Pathol 1990;1:19–24.

157. Yamashita J, Handa H, Iwaki K, et al. Recurrence of intracranial meningiomas with special reference to radiotherapy. Surg Neurol 1980;14:33–40.

158. Jaaskelainen J. Seemingly complete removal of histologically benign intracranial meningioma: late recurrence rate and factors predicting recurrence in 657 patients. A multivariate analysis. Surg Neurol 1986;26:461–469.

159. Jaaskelainen J, Haltia M, Servo A. Atypical and ana- plastic meningiomas: radiology, surgery and radiotherapy outcome. Surg Neurol 1986;25:233–242.

160. Mirimanoff RO, Dosoretz DE, Linggood RN, et al. Meningioma: analysis of recurrence and progression following neurosurgical resection. J Neurosurg 1985;62:18–24.

161. Flyger G. Epilepsy following radical removal of parasagittal and convexity meningiomas. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 1956;31:245–251.

162. Foy PM, Copeland GP, Shaw MD. The incidence of postoperative seizures. Acta Neurochir 1981;55:253–264.

163. Kallio M, Sankilo R, Hakulinen T, et al. Factors affecting operative and excess long-term mortality in 935 patients with intracranial meningioma. Neurosurgery 1992;31:2–12.

164. Barbaro NM, Gutin PH, Wilson CB, et al. Radiation therapy in the treatment of partially resected meningiomas. Neurosurgery 1987;20:525–528.

165. Hakim R, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, et al. Results of linear accelerator-based radiosurgery for intracranial meningiomas. Neurosurgery 1998;42:446–454.

166. Subach BR, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, et al. Management of petroclival meningiomas by stereotactic radiosurgery. Neurosurgery 1998;42:437–445.

167. Chang SD, Adler J Jr. Treatment of cranial base meningiomas with linear accelerator radiosurgery. Neurosurgery 1997;41:1019–1027.

168. Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Perez B, et al. Judicious resection and/or radiosurgery for parasagittal meningiomas: outcomes from a multicenter review. Neurosurgery 1998;43:405–414.

169. Zimm S, Wampler G, Stablein D, et al. Intracerebral metastases in solid-tumor patients: natural history and results of treatment. Cancer 1981;48:384–394.

170. Sorensen JB, Heine HH, Hansen M, Dombernowsky P. Brain metastases in adenocarcinoma of the lung: frequency, risk groups, and prognosis. J Clin Oncol 1988;6:1474–1480.

171. Delattre JY, Krol G, Thaler ST, Posner JB. Distribution of brain metastases. Acta Neurol 1988;45:741–744.

172. Tsukada Y, Fouad A, Pickren JW, Lane WW. Central nervous system metastasis from breast carcinoma. Cancer 1983;52:2349–2354.

173. Neundorfer B. Epileptic seizures in brain metastases. Adv Neurosurg 1984;12:19–24.

174. Markesbery WR, Brooks WH, Gupta GL, Young AB. Treatment for patients with cerebral metastases. Arch Neurol 1978;35:754–756.

175. Ruderman NB, Hall TC. Use of glucocorticoids in the palliative treatment of metastatic brain tumors. Cancer 1965;18:298–306.

176. Cairncross JG, Kim JH, Posner JB. Radiation therapy for brain metastasis. Ann Neurol 1980;7:529–541.

177. Borgelt B, Gelber R, Kramer S. The palliation of brain metastasis: final results of the first two studies by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1980;6:1–9.

178. Patchell RA, Tibbs PA, Regine WF, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy in the treatment of single metastases to the brain: a randomized trial. JAMA 1998;280:1485–1489.

179. Pilcher W, Rusyniak WG. Complications of epilepsy surgery. Neurosurg Clin North Am 1993;4:311–325.

180. Hennessy M, Langan Y, Elwes RD, et al. A study of mortality after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Neurology 1999;53:1276–1283.

181. Behrens E, Schramm J, Zentner J, Konig R. Surgical and neurological complications in a series of 708 epilepsy surgery procedures clinical study. Neurosurgery 1997;41:1–10.

182. Black PM, Moriarty T, Eben A, et al. Development and implementation of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging and its neurosurgical applications. Neurosurgery 1997;41:831–845.

183. Rubino GJ, Farahani K, McGill D, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided neurosurgery in the magnetic fringe fields: the next step in neuronavigation. Neuro- surgery 2000;46:643–654.

184. Gutin P, Posner JB. Neurooncology: diagnosis and management of cerebral gliomas—past, present, and future. Neurosurgery 2000;47:1–8.

185. Patchell RA, Tibbs PA, Walsh JW, et al. A randomized trial of surgery in the treatment of single metastases to the brain. N Engl J Med. 1990;322(8):494-500.
 

Adapted from: Mangano FT, McBride AE, and Schneider SJ. Brain tumors and epilepsy. In: Ettinger AB and Devinsky O, eds. Managing epilepsy and co-existing disorders. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2002;175–194.
With permission from Elsevier (www.elsevier.com). 

Authored By: 
Steven C. Schachter, MD
I<
Authored Date: 
02/2004