Alcohols and glycols

  • ethanol
  • ethylene glycol
  • methanol
  • propylene glycol

Anesthetics, local

  • bupivacaine
  • cocaine
  • lidocaine
  • procaine
  • proparacaine
  • tetracaine

Anesthetics, general

  • enflurane
  • etomidate
  • isoflurane
  • ketamine
  • methohexital

Antibiotics

  • cephalosporins
  • ciprofloxacin
  • gentamicin
  • imipenem/cilastatin
  • isoniazid
  • metronidazole
  • nalidixic acid
  • norfloxacin
  • penicillins

Anticonvulsants

  • carbamazepine
  • ethosuximide
  • phenytoin
  • valproic acid

Anticholinergics

  • atropine
  • benztropine mesylate
  • diphenhydramine
  • optic cyclopentolate
  • scopolamine

Antidepressants, cyclic

  • amitriptyline
  • amoxapine
  • clomipramine
  • desipramine
  • doxepin
  • imipramine
  • nortriptyline
  • protriptyline
  • trimipramine

Antidepressants, other

  • bupropion
  • fluoxetine
  • maprotiline
  • mianserin
  • trazodone

Antifungals

  • amphotericin
  • miconazole

Antihistamines

  • astemizole
  • brompheniramine
  • chlorpheniramine
  • diphenhydramine
  • doxylamine
  • hydroxyzine
  • pyrilamine

Antineoplastics

  • bleomycin
  • busulphan
  • carmustine
  • chlorambucil
  • cisplatin
  • cytarabine
  • mechlorethamine
  • methotrexate
  • vinblastine
  • vincristine

Antiparasitics

  • chloroquine
  • oxamniquine
  • pyrimethamine

Antivirals

  • acyclovir
  • amantadine

Asphyxiants

  • acetylene
  • butane
  • carbon dioxide
  • ethane
  • methane
  • nitrogen
  • propane

Cardiovascular agents

  • aprindine
  • digoxin
  • disopyramide
  • encainide
  • flecainide
  • lidocaine
  • lorcainide
  • methyldopa
  • metoprolol
  • mexiletine
  • osmolal
  • propafenone
  • propranolol
  • quinidine
  • quinine
  • tocainide
  • verapamil

Drugs of abuse

  • amphetamines
  • cocaine
  • lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
  • marijuana
  • methamphetamine ("ice")
  • phencyclidine (PCP)

Drug withdrawal

  • anticonvulsants
  • barbiturates
  • benzodiazepines
  • ethanol
  • other sedative-hypnotic agents

Hypoglycemics

  • insulin
  • sulfonylureas

Hydrocarbons

  • acetone
  • benzene
  • camphor
  • ethyl ether
  • eucalyptus oil
  • methylene chloride
  • nitromethane
  • phenol
  • pine oil
  • toluene
  • turpentine oil
  • xylene

Immunosuppressives

  • azathioprine
  • cyclosporin
  • glucocorticosteroids

Inhalants

  • carbon monoxide

Insecticides

  • benzene hexachloride (Lindane)
  • carbamates
  • organochlorines
  • organophosphates
  • pyrethrins
  • rotenone

Insect repellent

  • N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET)

Metal chelators

  • deferoxamine
  • edetic acid (EDTA)
  • penicillamine

Metals

  • aluminum
  • arsenic
  • bismuth salts
  • copper
  • iron
  • lead
  • mercury

Muscle relaxants

  • baclofen
  • albuterol

Mushrooms

  • cyclopeptides
  • monomethylhydrazine
  • muscimol-ibotenic acid
  • orellanine
  • psilocybe

Neuroleptics

  • thiothixene
  • haloperidol
  • lithium carbonate

Neuromuscular blockers

  • atracurium
  • tubocurarine

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

  • ibuprofen
  • ketoprofen
  • mefenamic acid
  • naproxen
  • piroxicam
  • phenylbutazone
  • salicylates

Opioids

  • alfentanil
  • fentanyl
  • meperidine
  • morphine
  • pentazocine
  • propoxyphene
  • sufentanil

Plants

  • akee (hypoglycins)
  • angel's trumpet (belladonna alkaloids)
  • azalea (grayanotoxin)
  • bleeding hearts (isoquinoline alkaloids)
  • Carolina jasmine (Gelsemium)
  • chinaberry
  • Christmas rose (glycosides)
  • daffodil (narcissine, lycorine)
  • deadly nightshade (solanine alkaloids)
  • golden chain (quinolizidine alkaloids)
  • ground hemlock (Taxus)
  • juniper (essential oils)
  • jimson weed (solanaceous alkaloids)
  • Jerusalem cherry (solanine alkaloids)
  • mountain laurel (cytisine)
  • mistletoe
  • poison hemlock (Conium maculatum)
  • rhododendron (grayanotoxin)
  • rhubarb (oxalic acid)
  • strychnine nux vomicus
  • tobacco (nicotine)
  • umbrella plant (essential oils)
  • water hemlock (cicutoxin)
  • yew (Taxus)

Radiographic contrast media

  • diatrizoic acid
  • iopamidol
  • iothalamate
  • meglumine
  • metrizamide
  • metrizoate

Rodenticides

  • fluoroacetate
  • phosphorus
  • phosphine
  • strychnine
  • thallium
  • vacor

Sedative hypnotics reversal agents

  • flumazenil

Sympathomimetics

  • amphetamines
  • aminophenzole
  • caffeine
  • doxapram
  • ephedrine
  • etamivan
  • flurothyl
  • imidazoline class
  • lobeline
  • methylphenidate
  • metrazole
  • phenylephrine
  • phenylpropanolamine
  • picrotoxin
  • prethcamide
  • pseudoephedrine
  • strychnine
  • terbutaline
  • theophylline

Vaccines

  • measles vaccine
  • pertussis vaccine

Miscellaneous

  • allopurinol
  • borates
  • bromocriptine
  • cimetidine
  • colchicine
  • corticosteroids
  • cyanide
  • cycloserine
  • dantrolene
  • disulfiram
  • ergonovine
  • ergot alkaloids
  • erythropoietin
  • famotidine
  • fluoride
  • hydrogen sulfide
  • levamisole
  • levodopa
  • levothyroxine
  • nicotine
  • pimozide
  • probenecid
  • prostaglandins
  • thyrotropin-releasing hormone

Adapted from: Koppel BS. Contribution of drugs and drug interactions (prescribed, over the counter, and illicit) to seizures and epilepsy. In: Ettinger AB and Devinsky O, eds. Managing epilepsy and co-existing disorders. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2002;155-173. With permission from Elsevier (www.elsevier.com).

Authored By: 
Barbara S. Koppel MD
I<
Reviewed By: 
Steven C. Schachter MD
on: 
Monday, March 1, 2004