Fungus Geographic Distribution Opportunistic Infection? Clinical Setting Cerebrospinal Fluid Systemic Involvement Treatment
Cryptococcus Nonspecific Sometimes Community acquired ? Protein Lungs, skin, bones, joints Amphotericin B flucytosine
nl/? glucose
? WBC (N, M)
India ink
Crypto-
coccus
Antigen
Latex agglutin-
ation
Coccidioides Southwestern United States No Community acquired ? Protein Lungs, skin, bones, joints Amphotericin B (i.v. and i.t.)
nl/? glucose
? WBC (N, M)
Complement fixation
Candida Nonspecific Yes Prolonged broad-
spectrum antibiotics
? Protein Mucous membranes, skin, esophagus, genitourinary Amphotericin B
Indwelling catheters nl/? glucose
Abdominal Surgery ? WBC (N, M)
Intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) Gram's stain
Molds Nonspecific Yes Diabetes ? Protein Lungs, skin, orbits, paranasal siunses Amphotericin B
 Aspergillus Hematologic neoplasms nl/? glucose
 Mucorales Transplant ? WBC (N, M)
Near-
drowning
Red blood cell
IVDA
Histoplasma Eastern / mid-western United States Sometimes Community acquired ? Protein Lungs, skin, mucous membranes, heart Ampho-
tericin B
Sporothrix       nl/? glucose    
? WBC (N)
Blastomyces Mississippi River Valley No Community aquired ? Protein Lungs, skin, bones, joints, viscera Amphotericin B
nl/? glucose
? WBC (N, M)
Nocardia Nonspecific Yes Community acquired ? Protein Lungs, skin Sulfonamides
nl/? glucose
? WBC (N, M)
Gram's stain
Acid-fast bacillus

M= monocyte; N= neutrophils; WBC= white blood cell; ?= increased; ?= decreased; = positive

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