1. Touchon J, Baldy-Moulinier M, Billiard M, et al. Sleep organization and epilepsy. In R Degen, E Rodin (eds), Epilepsy, Sleep, and Sleep Deprivation (2nd ed). New York: Elsevier, 1991;73–81.

2. Castro L, Bazil C, Walczak T. Nocturnal seizures disrupt sleep architecture and decrease sleep efficiency. Epilepsia 1997;38:49.

3. Mitler M, Gujavarty K, Browman C. Maintenance of wakefulness test: a polysomnographic technique for evaluation treatment efficacy in patients with excessive somnolence. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1982;53:658–661.

4. Hoddes E, Dement W, Zarcone V. The development and use of the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Psycho- physiology 1972;9:150.

5. Bazil C, Castro L, Walczak T. Daytime seizures increase REM latency and decrease total REM. Epilepsia 1997;38:176.

6. Touchon J, Baldy-Moulinier M, Billiard M, et al. Sleep instability in temporal lobe epilepsy. In P Wolf, M Dam, D Janz, F Dreifuss (eds), Advances in Epileptology. New York: Raven Press, 1987;709–711.

7. Miller M, Vaughn B, Messenheimer J, et al. Subjective sleep quality in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia 1996;36:43.

8. Hoeppner JB, Garron DC, Cartwright RD. Self- reported sleep disorder symptoms in epilepsy. Epilepsia 1984;25:434–437.

9. Peled R, Lavie P. Paroxysmal awakenings from sleep associated with excessive daytime somnolence: a form of nocturnal epilepsy. Neurology 1986;36:95–98.

10. Malow B, Lin X, Kushwaha R, Aldrich M. Interictal spiking increases with sleep depth in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 1998;39:1309–1316.

11. Declerck A, Wauquier A. Influence of antiepileptic drugs on sleep patterns. In R Degen, E Rodin (eds), Epilepsy, Sleep, and Sleep Deprivation (2nd ed). New York: Elsevier, 1991;153–164.

12. Wolf P. Influence of antiepileptic drugs on sleep. In P Wolf, M Dam, D Janz, F Dreifuss (ed), Advances in Epileptology. New York: Raven Press, 1987;733–737.

13. Roder-Wanner U, Noachtar S, Wolf P. Response of polygraphic sleep to phenytoin treatment for epilepsy. A longitudinal study of immediate, short- and long-term effects. Acta Neurol Scand 1987;76:157–167.

14. Roder-Wanner U, Wolf P. Effects of treatment with dipropylacetate and ethosuximide on sleep organization in epileptic patients. In M Dam, L Gram, J Penry (eds). Advances in Epileptology: XIIth Epilepsy International Symposium. New York: Raven Press, 1981;145–157.

15. Harding G, Alford C, Powell T. The effect of sodium valproate on sleep, reaction times, and visual evoked potential in normal subjects. Epilepsia 1985;26:597–601.

16. Ballenger J, Post R. Carbamazepine in manic-depressive illness: a new treatment. Am J Psychiatry 1980;137:782–790.

17. Gigli G, Placidi F, Diomedi M, et al. Nocturnal sleep and daytime somnolence in untreated patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: changes after treatment with controlled-release carbamazepine. Epilepsia 1997;38:696–701.

18. Ketter T, Malow B, Flamini R. Felbamate has stimulant-like effects in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 1996;23:129–137.

19. Ettinger AB, Jandorf L, Berdia A, et al. Felbamate- induced headache. Epilepsia 1996;37:503–505.

20. Sadler M. Lamotrigine associated with insomnia. Epilepsia 1999;40:322–325.

21. Foldvary N, Perry M, Lisac S, et al. The effects of lamotrigine on sleep and daytime alertness. Epilepsia 1999;40:142.

22. American Sleep Disorders Association. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders Diagnostic and Coding Manual. Rochester: American Sleep Disorders Association, 1990.

23. Aldrich M. Sleep Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

24. Chokroverty S. Sleep Disorders Medicine. Boston: Butterworth–Heinemann, 1999.

25. Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine (3rd ed). Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000.

26. Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, et al. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1230–1235.

27. Redline S, Strohl KP. Recognition and consequences of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. Clin Chest Med 1998;19:1–19.

28. Trenkwalder C, Walters A, Hening W. Periodic limb movements and restless legs syndrome. Neurol Clin 1996;14:629–650.

29. Aldrich MS. Narcolepsy. Neurology 1992;42:34–43.

30. Faraco J, Lin X, Hinton L, et al. Genetic studies in narcolepsy, a disorder affecting REM sleep. J Hered 1999;90:129–132.

31. Bassetti C, Aldrich M. Idiopathic hypersomnia. A series of 42 patients. Brain 1997;120:1423–1435.

32. Malow B, Bowes R, Lin X. Predictors of sleepiness in epilepsy patients. Sleep 1997;20:1105–1110.

33. Beghi E. Adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs: a multi-center survey of clinical practice. Epilepsia 1986;27:323–330.

34. Aldrich MS, Jahnke B. Diagnostic value of video-EEG polysomnography. Neurology 1991;41:1060–1066.

35. Bixler E, Kalres A, Soldatos C, et al. Prevalence of sleep disorders in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Am J Psychiatry 1979;136:1257–1262.

36. Klackenberg G. Somnambulism in childhood—prevalence, course, and behavioral correlations. A prospective longitudinal study (6–16 years). Acta Paediatr Scand 1982;71:495–499.

37. Klackenberg G. Incidence of parasomnias in children in a general population. In C Guilleminault (ed), Sleep and its Disorders in Children. New York: Raven Press, 1987:99–113.

38. Kales A, Soldatos C, Bixler E. Hereditary factors in sleepwalking and night terrors. Br J Psychiatry 1980;137:111–118.

39. Mahowald M, Bundlie S, Hurwitz T, Schenck C. Sleep violence—forensic science implications: polygraphic and video documentation. J Forensic Sci 1990;35:413–432.

40. Mahowald M, Ettinger M. Things that go bump in the night: the parasomnias revised. J Clin Neurophysiol 1990;7:119–143.

41. Jouvet M, Delorme F. Locus coeruleus et sommeil paradoxal. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil 1965;159:895–899.

42. Schenck C, Bundlie S, Patterson A, Mahowald M. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a treatable parasomnia affecting older patients. JAMA 1987;257:1786–1789.

43. Mahowald M, Schenck C. REM sleep behavior disorder. In M Kryger, T Roth, W Dement (eds), Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine (2nd ed). Philadelphia: Saunders, 1994;598–601.

44. Schenck C, Mahowald M. Polysomnographic, neurologic, psychiatric, and clinical outcome report on 70 consecutive cases with the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD): sustained clonazepam efficacy in 89.5% of 57 treated patients. Clev Clin J Med 1990;57:S10–S24.

45. Culebras A, Moore J. Magnetic resonance findings in REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology 1989;39:1519–1523.

46. Ohayon M, Priest R, Caulet M, Guilleminault C. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations: pathological phenomena? Br J Psychiatry 1996;169:459–467.

 

47. Ohayon M, Zulley J, Guilleminault C, Smirne S. Prevalence and pathological associations of sleep paralysis in the general population. Neurology 1999;52:1194–1200.

48. Guilleminault C, Pool P, Motta J, Gillis A. Sinus arrest during REM sleep in young adults. N Engl J Med 1984;311:1006–1010.

49. Thorpy M, Glovinsky P. Headbanging (jactatio capitus nocturna). In M Kryger, T Roth, W Dement (eds), Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine (1st ed). Philadelphia: Saunders, 1989:648–654.

50. Hartmann E. Bruxism. In M Kryger, T Roth, W Dement (eds), Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine (2nd ed). Philadelphia: Saunders, 1994:598–601.

51. Sheeham D. Current concepts in psychiatry. Panic attacks and phobias. N Engl J Med 1982;307:156–158.

52. Craske M, Barlow D. Nocturnal panic. J Nerv Ment Dis 1989;177:160–167.

53. Lesser I, Poland R, Holcomb C, Rose D. Electroencephalographic study of nighttime panic attacks. J Nerv Ment Dis 1990;173:744–746.

54. Hauri PJ, Freidman M, Ravaris CL. Sleep in patients with spontaneous panic attacks. Sleep 1989;12:323–337.

55. Mellman TA, Uhde TW. Sleep panic attacks: new clinical findings and theoretical implications. Am J Psychiatry 1989;146:1204–1207.

56. Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-IV/American Psychiatric Association. Washington: The Association, 1994.

57. Mellman T, Kulick-Bell R, Ashlock L, Nolan B. Sleep events among veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:110–115.

58. Thacker K, Devinsky O, Perrine K, et al. Nonepileptic seizures during apparent sleep. Ann Neurol 1993;33:414–418.

59. Malow BA, Fromes G, Selwa LM. Sleep attacks mimicking epileptic seizures and pseudoseizures. J Epilepsy 1997;10:232–235.

60. Wyler AR, Weymuller EA. Epilepsy complicated by sleep apnea. Ann Neurol 1981;9:403–404.

61. Devinsky O, Ehrenberg B, Barthlen GM, et al. Epilepsy and sleep apnea syndrome. Neurology 1994;44:2060–2064.

62. Vaughn BV, D’Cruz OF, Beach R, Messenheimer JA. Improvement of epileptic seizure control with treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Seizure 1996;5:73–78.

63. Malow BA, Fromes G, Aldrich MS. Usefulness of polysomnography in epilepsy patients. Neurology 1997;48:1389–1394.

64. Brodie M, Richens A, Yuen A. Double-blind comparison of lamotrigine and carbamazepine in newly diagnosed epilepsy. Lancet 1995;345:476–479.

65. Sharp S, D’Cruz OF, Vaughn BV. Felbamate efficacy in the treatment of hypersomnia. Sleep 1999;22:S278.

Reviewed by: Steven C. Schachter, MD on 4/2004
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT