Large Description (basic): 

Gabitril (GAB-ih-tril) is the brand name for the seizure medicine tiagabine (tie-AG-ah-bean) hydrochloride (HI-droh-KLOR-ide), or just tiagabine. Gabitril is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, but not in Canada.  Gabitril is not available in generic (non–brand name) form in the United States.

Used to treat: 

Forms (basic): 

Gabitril is marketed in the United States by Cephalon, Inc. The name or appearance may differ in other countries. The dose (measured in milligrams, abbreviated "mg") will usually be the same. These descriptions apply to the U.S. versions:

How to take and store Tiagabine Hydrochloride?

Follow your doctor's directions. Call if you have any questions. Usually, your doctor will tell you to start by taking one tablet – either 2 or 4 milligrams – two times each day. After a while, the doctor may gradually increase the dosage to get better control of your seizures. Because Gabitril (tiagabine) is generally taken up to four times a day, many people help themselves to remember by taking it with meals and at bedtime. It should be taken with food. Ask the doctor what to do if you forget to take a dose.

Be careful if the doctor writes a new prescription using a different kind of pill. For example, if you've been using 4-mg tablets and the new prescription is for 12-mg tablets, be careful to use the correct number. Don't automatically continue to use the same number of pills as before. Make sure you know what size tablet has been prescribed.

All forms of Gabitril should be stored at room temperature, away from light and humidity. (Don't keep the pills in the bathroom if it's damp there.) Of course, keep all Gabitril out of the reach of children.

Don't take more than the doctor prescribes. Be sure to use only the amount of Gabitril that your doctor prescribes. If you think you've taken one or two extra tablets, call your doctor for advice. For a larger overdose, call your local poison control center or emergency room right away, unless you have special directions from the doctor.

Don't stop taking Gabitril or change the amount you take without talking to your doctor first. Stopping any seizure medicine all at once can cause serious problems.

What if I forget?

If you forget a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, delay that dose for a few hours instead of taking two doses very close together. Then go back to the regular schedule. If you're not sure about what to do, call the doctor's office for more advice.

Do your best to follow the doctor's directions. If you forget doses often, it may be a good idea to get a special pillbox or watch with an alarm to remind you.

Taking the right amount of seizure medicine on time every single day is the most important step in preventing seizures!

How does Tiagabine Hydrochloride effect the brain?

Brain cells need to work (fire) at a certain rate to function normally. During a seizure, brain cells are forced to work much more rapidly than normal. Gabitril helps prevent brain cells from working as fast as a seizure requires them to. In this way, seizures can be stopped when they are just beginning.

How does the body digest Tiagabine Hydrochloride?

After medicine is swallowed, it must be absorbed into the blood so it can move throughout the body. The process of absorbing, digesting, and excreting a medicine or food is called metabolism. The way the body metabolizes a particular medicine affects how often it must be taken. It also determines whether it will interact with other medicines or be affected by liver disease or kidney disease.

Gabitril is metabolized by the liver. This process happens more quickly if certain other seizure medicines are also being used. The amount of Gabitril taken may need to be increased if you also take one of these other seizure medicines:

  • carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Carbatrol)
  • phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek)
  • phenobarbital
  • primidone (Mysoline)

Because Gabitril is metabolized in the liver, people with liver disease need to be cautious. They may have to start with a lower dose and have their dosage increased more slowly than other people the same age.

How well does the Tiagabine Hydrochloride work?

Doctors have studied large numbers of people with partial seizures to find out how well Gabitril works. Studies have shown that Gabitril works well when added to other seizure medications. Gabitril is not a perfect add-on seizure medicine for everyone, however. Sometimes people must try a series of combinations before finding what is best for them.

Some other medications affect how Gabitril is eliminated from the body, so the dosages may need to be changed with different combinations.

What are the most common side effects of Tiagabine Hydrochloride?

Many people who take Gabitril (tiagabine) don't report any unwanted side effects. Those who experience undesirable effects most often complain of:

  • dizziness
  • tiredness
  • nervousness
  • sleepiness
  • difficulty concentrating
  • tremor

Be careful when you first start taking Gabitril. Make sure you don't have a problem with sleepiness or dizziness when driving or doing anything else that might be dangerous.

Some other side effects mentioned even less often were:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • weakness (for example, sometimes people say that their knees buckled)
  • irritability
  • confusion

If you notice any of these problems, call the doctor's office. Sometimes the doctor can help by changing the amount of Gabitril you take or how you take it. Don't stop taking Gabitril or change the amount you take without the doctor's guidance.

Some of these problems become more severe when higher doses of Gabitril are taken, or when the dosage is increased rapidly.

Be sure to read about the serious side effects so you will be aware of a few serious problems that could arise when you take Gabitril. These serious problems are very rare but everyone who takes this medicine should at least be aware of them.

Allergic reactions
There do not appear to be any allergic reactions to Gabitril.

Long-term side effects
There are no known long-term side effects of Gabitril.

What are the most serious side effects of Tiagabine Hydrochloride?

Very few people have serious reactions to Gabitril. If you take it, you should be aware of them, however, so you and your family can recognize them.

About 1 in 100 people who have taken Gabitril have experienced a lot of weakness. In every case, the weakness went away after the Gabitril was reduced or discontinued.

In rare cases, Gabitril causes severe confusion. It is a medical emergency and is usually treated with clonazepam (Klonopin) or lorazepam (Ativan). People with a history of absence seizures or with a type of EEG abnormality called “spike-wave” appear to be at particular risk.

On July 10, 2008, an advisory panel was convened by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to review data that the FDA had previously collected from drug studies showing an association between many of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and suicidal ideation and behavior, which together are called suicidality. According to the FDA’s Alert, among the patients with epilepsy in these drug studies, 1 out of 1000 people taking the placebo (inactive substance) showed suicidality compared to approximately 3.5 out of 1000 people who took an AED. The FDA advisory panel voted to accept the FDA's data at its meeting on July 10. The FDA has provided the following information for patients, family members, and caregivers at http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm100192.htm.

  • Taking antiepileptic medicines may increase the risk of having suicidal thoughts or actions;
  • Do not make any changes to the medication regimen without first talking with the responsible healthcare professional;
  • Pay close attention to any day-to-day changes in mood, behavior and actions. These changes can happen very quickly so it is important to be mindful of any sudden differences.
  • Be aware of common warning signs that might be a signal for risk of suicide. Some of these are:
    • Talking or thinking about wanting to hurt yourself or end your life
    • Withdrawing from friends and family
    • Becoming depressed or having your depression get worse
    • Becoming preoccupied with death and dying
    • Giving away prized possessions

We again urge patients and families to contact their doctor before stopping an epilepsy medication because this may possibly lead to seizures and worsening of mood.

Impact of Tiagabine Hydrochloride on bone health

See package insert.

What else is Tiagabine Hydrochloride used for?

Often doctors find that medicines are useful for more than one purpose. It is legal to prescribe medicines for ""off-label uses"" even though the FDA has not formally approved such use. Off-label uses of Gabitril include:

  • spasticity
  • migraine headaches
  • mood disorders
  • other seizure types such as infantile spasms

Cephalon Inc., the manufacturer of Gabitril, issued health care providers a letter in February 05 informing them that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will add a bolded warning to the label of Gabitril (tiagabine hydrochloride) to warn of the seizure risk associated with the drug when it is used off-label to treat patients without epilepsy.

Who should not take Tiagabine Hydrochloride?

The only people who definitely should not take Gabitril are those who are allergic to it or any of its inactive ingredients.

Also, people with a diagnosis of absence seizures or an EEG abnormality called “spike-wave" should not take Gabitril.

People who have liver disease need to be extra cautious about taking Gabitril.

Can Tiagabine Hydrochloride be taken with other medicines?

Sometimes one kind of medicine changes the way another kind of medicine works in the body. If two kinds of medicine affect each other, the doctor may prescribe something else or change the amount to be taken.

Your body gets rid of Gabitril quicker if you are also taking certain seizure medicines, such as:

  • carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Carbatrol)
  • phenobarbital
  • primidone (Mysoline)
  • phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek)

If this applies to you, your doctor may plan to give you more Gabitril than you would otherwise take.

Any time one of your doctors suggests starting or stopping a prescription, be sure to ask what effect it might have on the Gabitril, and whether the dosage should be increased or decreased.

Gabitril has no known effect on other medicines that you may be taking.

What are the effects of Tiagabine Hydrochloride on Children?

Gabitril is used to treat children with partial seizures, and also has been used to treat infantile spasms (West syndrome), although it is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for this purpose.

Doctors figure out how much medicine to give to young children based mostly on their weight. To keep side effects at a minimum, the doctor probably will prescribe a low dose to start with and increase it slowly. Children usually start with a dose of 0.1 (one-tenth) milligram (mg) for each kilogram (kg, about 2.2 pounds) of their body weight per day. This is usually given in 2 or 3 equal doses.

Most children do best at about 0.1 to 2 mg per kg per day, which may require gradually increasing the dose as directed by the doctor.

If a woman takes Tiagabine Hydrochloride during pregnancy will it hurt the baby?

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assigns each medication to a Pregnancy Category according to whether it has been proven to be harmful in pregnancy. Gabitril is listed in Pregnancy Category C. This means that caution is advised, but the benefits of the medicine may outweigh the potential risks. Studies in animals have shown some harm to the baby, but there haven't been any good studies of results in women.

Talk to your doctor or another health professional if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. We don't yet have enough information to be able to estimate the risk of various types of birth defects that might occur if Gabitril is taken during pregnancy. We also don't know enough to compare the risk with Gabitril to the risk with other seizure medicines. The risk of birth defects is generally higher for women who take more than one seizure medication and for women with a family history of birth defects.

Women who are capable of becoming pregnant should take at least 400 mcg (0.4 mg) of folic acid (folate) daily to help prevent a type of birth defect called a neural tube defect. (The best-known of these is spina bifida, in which the spinal cord is not completely enclosed.) Women at high risk, such as those who have already had a baby with this kind of defect, should take 4000 mcg (4 mg) daily, beginning before they become pregnant.

How much Gabitril is passed through breast milk is not known for certain, but the way the body uses it suggests that probably a large portion does enter the milk. If you want to breastfeed your baby, check with your doctor about what seizure medicine would be best for you.

What are the effects of Tiagabine Hydrochloride on Seniors

Gabitril is commonly prescribed for people over 65, but it's important for the doctor to be careful about how much Gabitril these people take, because seniors may be more sensitive to the side effects of Gabitril, such as dizziness and tremor. Also, seniors are at greater risk of injury from falls or other accidents.

What are the dose ranges for Tiagabine Hydrochloride?

The best amount is the amount that completely controls seizures without causing troublesome side effects. It depends on many factors, which are different for every individual. Follow the doctor's directions. Call if you have any questions.

In young adults, Gabitril is usually started at 4 milligrams (mg) per day, and increased by 8 to 12 mg per month as required, to a maximum of 32 to 56 mg per day, if side effects are not troublesome.

People over age 65 generally require a lower dose and longer period between increases.

No one should stop taking Gabitril or change the amount they take without talking to the doctor first. Stopping any seizure medicine all at once can cause a problem that may be life-threatening.

Don’t use more than the doctor prescribes. If a little extra (such as an extra tablet or two) is taken by accident, call the doctor for advice. For a larger overdose, call a poison control center or emergency room right away unless you have other specific directions from your doctor.

Those who have been taking another seizure medicine may be told to continue to take it in the same way as before, or the amount of the other medicine may gradually be reduced over several weeks to months.

Read the package insert of Tiagabine Hydrochloride

In the United States, companies that manufacture medicines are required to publish certain kinds of information about each product. This document is commonly known as a “package insert” because it is usually included with each package of the medicine.

You can also read these documents (also called "prescribing information") online. The U.S. package insert for Gabitril (tiagabine) is found at:

Some of the information may differ in other countries.

To learn how to read and understand a package insert, see "How to read a package insert."

Small Description (adv): 

Gabitril is the brand name used in the United States, the UK, Australia, and other countries for tiagabine.

Large Description (adv): 

Gabitril first was approved in Europe in 1996 and was approved by the FDA for use in the United States in 1997. At that time it was marketed by Abbott Laboratories, but in 2001 the rights to market this medication were purchased by Cephalon, Inc. The identification on the tablets changed but they stayed the same in all other ways. No generic form is available

Indications (adv): 

In the United States, Gabitril is approved by the FDA for the adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults and children 12 years and older.

Forms (adv): 

Gabitril is marketed in the United States by Cephalon, Inc. The name or appearance may differ in other countries. The dose (measured in milligrams, abbreviated "mg") will usually be the same. These descriptions apply to the U.S. versions:

How to take and store Tiagabine Hydrochloride?

Gabitril can be taken with or without food, but it is generally better tolerated when taken with food because of slower absorption. Encourage patients to be consistent in always taking it the same way.

Gabitril should be stored at room temperature, away from light and moisture, and kept out of the reach of young children.

Missed Doses

In general, tell patients that if they forget a dose, they should take it as soon as they remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, they should delay that dose for a few hours instead of taking two doses very close together.

Patients who often forget doses may benefit from using a special pillbox or watch with an alarm.

Mechanisms of actions of Tiagabine Hydrochloride

Gabitril has a unique mechanism of action. It blocks the neuronal and glial reuptake of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) after its release from postsynaptic GABA receptors, thereby enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition at central nervous system (CNS) sites.

Gabitril has no effect on sodium or calcium channels.

Clinical Pharmacology of Tiagabine Hydrochloride

Absorption
Gabitril is quickly and almost completely absorbed. Oral bioavailability is approximately 90% and absorption is linear over the therapeutic dosage range. Maximum serum concentrations are attained within 45 to 90 minutes in the fasting state and after a mean of 2.6 hours when taken with food. The extent of absorption is not affected by food.

Distribution and metabolism
Gabitril is extensively oxidized in the liver by isoform 3A of cytochrome P450. Only 2% of the administered dose is excreted as parent drug. The elimination of Gabitril is linear over the therapeutic dosage range.

The half-life is 5 to 8 hours in patients with uninduced liver function and 2 to 3 hours in patients taking hepatic enzyme–inducing AEDs. More frequent dosing does not appear to be necessary to compensate for the shortened half-life, however. The common maintenance dosage of 32 mg/day as add-on therapy is equally effective whether given as 16 mg twice daily or 8 mg four times daily.

Renal impairment does not change the pharmacokinetics of Gabitril. The half-life is increased to 12 to 16 hours in patients with hepatic impairment, however, requiring dosage reductions and less frequent dosing intervals.

Because Gabitril is metabolized in the liver, people with liver disease should be treated with caution. They may have to be started at a lower dose and have their dosage increased more slowly.

Steady state
Steady state is reached after 2 days of taking a stable dose of Gabitril. The dosage should not be increased until steady state has been reached (or some time later), so that the effects of the previous dosage can be assessed.

Efficacy of Tiagabine Hydrochloride

In several randomized, controlled clinical trials, Gabitril was significantly more effective than a placebo for patients with frequent partial seizures. In two studies, 20-31% of the patients who took Gabitril reduced their seizure frequency by half or more, without excessive adverse side effects (Sachdeo et al. 1997; Uthman et al. 1998).

In other studies, approximately 1,200 patients received Gabitril for 1 year or more in 6 trials (Schachter et al.1997). Complex partial seizure rates declined by a median of 28% after 3 to 6 months of treatment and 44% after treatment for at least one year. Seizure reductions were maintained up to 24 months.

No single combination of antiepileptic medications is perfect for everyone. Sometimes, a series of combinations must be tried before finding what is best for the individual patient. Some other medications affect the rate at which Gabitril is eliminated from the body, so the dosages may need to be changed with different combinations. See Interactions for more information.

Some smaller studies have indicated that Gabitril also may be effective when used alone to treat partial seizures (Schachter 1995). It is rarely used as monotherapy, however.

Common side effects of Tiagabine Hydrochloride

Dose-related side effects
The most commonly seen side effects that occurred more often with Gabitril than placebo in add-on studies were:

  • dizziness
  • asthenia (fatigue or generalized muscle weakness)
  • nervousness
  • tremor
  • abnormal thinking (difficulty concentrating, mental lethargy, or slowness of thought)
  • depression
  • aphasia (dysarthria, difficulty speaking, or speech arrest)
  • abdominal pain.

In the clinical studies, 13% of patients who received Gabitril as add-on withdrew prematurely because of side effects compared with 5% of those who received placebo.

Long-term side effects
No new side effects were observed in long-term studies.

Serious Side effects of Tiagabine Hydrochloride

A review of 53 clinical trials involving nearly 3,100 patients treated with Gabitril found no clinically important effects on laboratory tests, hepatic metabolism, or concomitant AEDs. There has been no evidence of the development of visual field loss in patients taking Gabitril.

As of August, 2003, there had been over 39,000 patient-years of exposure to Gabitril. Case reports have attributed thrombocytopenia, convulsive status epilepticus, and reversible acute dystonic reactions to Gabitril.

Numerous reports have documented confusional states or nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in patients with partial-onset or generalized seizures, including one patient with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Remission has been reported with decreases in the daily dose of Gabitril, or with clonazepam (Klonopin) or lorazepam (Ativan). The incidence of symptoms consistent with NCSE in blinded trials was no higher in patients who received Gabitril than in those who received placebo, however. Since status epilepticus occurs in 5-10% patients with refractory seizures, the significance of these findings is unclear.

On July 10, 2008, an advisory panel was convened by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to review data that the FDA had previously collected from drug studies showing an association between many of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and suicidal ideation and behavior, which together are called suicidality. According to the FDA’s Alert, among the patients with epilepsy in these drug studies, 1 out of 1000 people taking the placebo (inactive substance) showed suicidality compared to approximately 3.5 out of 1000 people who took an AED. The FDA advisory panel voted to accept the FDA's data at its meeting on July 10. The FDA has provided the following information for patients, family members, and caregivers at http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm100192.htm.

  • Taking antiepileptic medicines may increase the risk of having suicidal thoughts or actions;
  • Do not make any changes to the medication regimen without first talking with the responsible healthcare professional;
  • Pay close attention to any day-to-day changes in mood, behavior and actions. These changes can happen very quickly so it is important to be mindful of any sudden differences.
  • Be aware of common warning signs that might be a signal for risk of suicide. Some of these are:
    • Talking or thinking about wanting to hurt yourself or end your life
    • Withdrawing from friends and family
    • Becoming depressed or having your depression get worse
    • Becoming preoccupied with death and dying
    • Giving away prized possessions

We again urge patients and families to contact their doctor before stopping an epilepsy medication because this may possibly lead to seizures and worsening of mood.

Impact of Tiagabine Hydrochloride on bone health

See package insert.

Other Uses of Tiagabine Hydrochloride

There have been anecdotal reports of success in a limited number of patients for several off-label uses, including spasticity, migraine, and mood and schizoaffective disorders.

Some studies have indicated that Gabitril may be effective when used alone for partial epilepsy and for other seizure types such as infantile spasms. Efficacy in animal models of pain and experimental cerebral ischemia also has been described.

Cephalon Inc., the manufacturer of Gabitril, issued health care providers a letter in February 05 informing them that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will add a bolded warning to the label of Gabitril (tiagabine hydrochloride) to warn of the seizure risk associated with the drug when it is used off-label to treat patients without epilepsy.

Tiagabine Hydrochloride Contraindications

Patients with absence seizures or spike-wave patterns on their EEG should not be prescribed Gabitril.

It is also contraindicated for patients who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients.

Tiagabine Hydrochloride Interactions with other medications

Effects of Gabitril on other drugs
Even though the protein binding of Gabitril is 96%, it does not displace other drugs that are tightly bound to albumin. Likewise, Gabitril does not affect the metabolism of other drugs. Therefore, Gabitril has no appreciable effect on other drugs.

Low doses of Gabitril (8 mg/day) have no effect on the metabolism of oral contraceptives, but whether higher doses have an effect is unknown.

Effects of other drugs on Gabitril
Gabitril is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A, so drugs that induce this isoenzyme increase its clearance. If concomitantly administered enzyme-inducing AEDs are discontinued, the half-life of Gabitril will decrease and serum concentrations may rise.

The AEDs that decrease the blood level of Gabitril are:

  • carbamazepine (Tegretol, Carbatrol)
  • phenobarbital
  • primidone (Mysoline)
  • phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek)

AED Interaction Sheets:
Seizure drugs are often affected by drug-drug interactions. Print these informative sheets for practical help.

Interaction sheet for tiagabine (Gabitril)

Tiagabine Hydrochloride effects on Children

When adjusted for body weight, the elimination of Gabitril is two times higher in children than in uninduced adults with epilepsy.

Dosages in children have not been well established. In one pediatric trial, dosages up to 0.4 mg/kg were used for children with uninduced hepatic function. Dosages up to 0.7 mg/kg were used for children taking enzyme-inducing AEDs.

Children usually start with a dose of 0.1 mg/kg per day. This is usually given in 2 or 3 divided doses. Most children do best at about 0.1 to 2 mg/kg per day given in two to four doses.

Tiagabine Hydrochloride and Pregnancy

The FDA lists tiagabine in Pregnancy Category C. This indicates that caution is advised, but the benefits of the medication may outweigh the potential risks. There have been no well-controlled studies in women, but studies in animals have shown some harm to the fetus.

The risk of birth defects is generally higher for women who take more than one AED and for women with a family history of birth defects.

Advise women who are capable of becoming pregnant to take at least 400 mcg (0.4 mg) of folic acid (folate) daily to help prevent neural tube defects. Women at high risk, such as those with a history of a neural tube defect in a previous pregnancy, should take 4000 mcg (4 mg) daily, beginning before they become pregnant. The effectiveness of prophylactic folic acid use in preventing defects related to Gabitril has not been proven, however, so diagnostic ultrasonography at the 18th to 20th week is recommended, especially if pregnancy termination is an option.

About 20% to 35% of women have seizures more often during pregnancy because of changes in hormones or changes in how their seizure medication is handled by the body. Whether this applies to Gabitril is uncertain, and blood levels are of limited value because of the short half-life of Gabitril. Therefore doses in pregnant women should be adjusted based on clinical response.

Breast-feeding by mothers taking Gabitril should generally be safe for healthy, full-term newborns, although a very small amount of the medication will appear in the milk.

Tiagabine Hydrochloride effects on Seniors

Although the pharmacokinetics of Gabitril are similar in healthy elderly volunteers and healthy young volunteers, lower initial doses and caution in titration are advised to minimize the likelihood of side effects. Some common side effects of Gabitril, such as dizziness, tremor, depression, or cognitive slowing, may exacerbate pre-existing problems of seniors, and their greater risk of injury from falls or other accidents makes this an area of concern.

Tiagabine Hydrochloride Dosing and titration

Adults and children over 12 years of age often begin by taking 4 mg per day. This amount can be increased by 8 to 16 mg per day each month, to a maximum of 32 mg to 56 mg per day, divided into two to four doses. (Although Gabitril can be give up to four times a day, studies have shown that the same total daily dose can be just as effective in controlling seizures when given twice a day.)

Therapeutic blood levels have not been established, and assays are of limited value because of the short half-life of Gabitril.

Tiagabine Hydrochloride Package insert

In the United States, companies that manufacture medicines are required to publish certain kinds of information about each product. This document is commonly known as a “package insert” because it is usually included with each package of the medicine.

You can also read these documents (also called "prescribing information") online. The U.S. package insert for Gabitril (tiagabine) is found at:

Some of the information may differ in other countries.

To learn how to read and understand a package insert, see "How to read a package insert."

Tiagabine Hydrochloride References for Professionals

Abstracts of articles relevant to this topic are available through PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine:

Here are links to some articles relevant to this subject:

Brodie MJ. Tiagabine pharmacology in profile. Epilepsia 1995;36(suppl 6):S7-S9. PMID: 8595791.

Lassen LC, Sommerville K, Mengel HB, et al. Summary of five controlled trials with tiagabine as adjunctive treatment of patients with partial seizures. Epilepsia 1995;36(suppl 3):S148.

Leppik IE, Gram L, Deaton R, et al. Safety of tiagabine: summary of 53 trials. Epilepsy Res 1999;33:235-246. PMID: 10094434.

Sachdeo RC, Leroy RF, Krauss GL, et al. Tiagabine therapy for complex partial seizures. A dose-frequency study. The Tiagabine Study Group. Arch Neurol 1997 May;54(5):595-601. PMID: 9152116.

Gabitril given as add-on therapy 2 or 4 times per day was effective in reducing complex partial seizures.

Schachter SC. Tiagabine monotherapy in the treatment of partial epilepsy. Epilepsia 1995;36 Suppl 6:S2-S6. PMID: 8595789.

Gabitril used alone may be helpful in controlling partial seizures for some patients who have not achieved good control with other antiepileptic medications.

Schachter SC, Deaton R, Sommerville K. Long-term use of tiagabine for partial seizures. Epilepsia 1997;38(suppl 8):S105-S106.

Schmidt D, Gram L, Brodie M, et al. Tiagabine in the treatment of epilepsy---a clinical review with a guide for the prescribing physician. Epilepsy Res 2000;41:245-251. PMID: 10962215.

Shinnar S, Berg AT, Treiman DM, et al. Status epilepticus and tiagabine therapy: review of safety data and epidemiologic comparisons. Epilepsia 2001;42:372-379. PMID: 11442155.

Striano S, Striano P, Boccella P, et al.. Tiagabine in glial tumors. Epilepsy Res 2002;49:81-85. PMID: 11948010.

Suzdak PD, Jansen JA. A review of the preclinical pharmacology of tiagabine: a potent and selective anticonvulsant GABA uptake inhibitor. Epilepsia 1995;36:612-626. PMID: 7555976.

Uthman BM, Rowan AJ, Ahmann PA, et al. Tiagabine for complex partial seizures: a randomized, add-on, dose-response trial. Arch Neurol 1998 Jan;55(1):56-62. PMID: 9443711.

Gabitril given as add-on therapy at various doses was effective in reducing complex partial seizures. Higher doses were more effective.