Low:

  • carbamazepine
  • clonazepam
  • lamotrigine
  • phenytoin
  • tiagabine
  • valproate

High:

  • ethosuximide
  • gabapentin
  • levetiracetam
  • phenobarbital
  • topiramate

Undetermined:

  • felbamate
  • oxcarbazepine
  • primidone
  • zonisamide

Adapted from: Browne TR. Renal disorders. In: Ettinger AB and Devinsky O, eds. Managing epilepsy and co-existing disorders. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2002;49-62. With permission from Elsevier (www.elsevier.com).

Authored by: TR Browne
Reviewed by: Steven C. Schachter MD | Barry Gidal PharmD on 6/2004