Prevalence
~100 cases have been reported; this may increase with improved awareness of the condition.

Age at onset
3 to 20 months; peak at 5 to 6 months.

Sex
Males = females in the non-familial form but more females are reported in the familial cases.

Neurological and mental status
Normal.

Etiology
The familial form is most likely autosomal dominant disorder with genetic heterogeneity (chromosomes 19q, 16, or 2).

Clinical manifestations
Diurnal focal seizures of motion arrest, decreased responsiveness, staring, eye and head deviation, simple automatisms, and mild clonic movements. They may or may not progress to generalized convulsions. Alternating from one side to the other side is common. Duration is usually short, from 30 sec to 3 min. They occur in clusters of a maximum of 8 to 10 per day for 1 to 3 days and may recur after 1 to 3 months.

Diagnostic procedures
All relevant tests are normal.

Inter-ictal EEG
Normal.

Ictal EEG
Focal discharges.

Prognosis
Excellent, with normal development and complete seizure remission.

Differential diagnosis
Difficult in sporadic form that requires long follow-up.

Management options
In the active seizure period, empirical drug treatment is usually effective. This is usually withdrawn after 1 to 3 years.

This section was adapted from:

The educational kit on epilepsies: The epileptic syndromes By C. P. Panayiotopoulos Originally published by MEDICINAE, 21 Cave Street, Oxford OX4 1BA
First published 2006 and reprinted in 2007. The Educational Kit on Epilepsies was produced through an unrestricted educational grant from UCB Pharma SA.
UCB Pharma SA assumes no responsibility of the views expressed and recommended treatments in these volumes.

Authored by: C. P. Panayiotopoulos MD PhD FRCP on 1/2005
Reviewed by: Steven C. Schachter MD on 6/2008
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