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Over 40 Different Types Of Seizures - Revised

It has been said repeatedly that there are over 40 different types of seizures with more or less only the most 'popular' listed. Let's see if we can locate the ones that aren't. These types of seizures affect someone and I feel need to be noted. I'm curious to see how many can be located. Anyone interested in helping me find them, please list what you find here along with their description. Thank you! Take care and have a good day! -Spiz This thread is a revision of the first one in order to make changes and additions.

Comments

Absence Seizures : Absence

Absence Seizures : Absence seizures are brief episodes of staring.During the seizure, awareness and responsiveness are impaired. People who have them usually don't realize when they've had one. There is no warning before a seizure, and the person is completely alert immediately afterward...

Atypical Absence Seizures :The person will stare (as they would in any absence seizure) but often is somewhat responsive. Eye blinking or slight jerking movements of the lips may occur...

Atonic Seizures :Muscle "tone" is the muscle's normal tension. "Atonic" (a-TON-ik) means "without tone," so in an atonic seizure, an epileptic seizure characterized by sudden loss of muscle tone; may cause the head to drop suddenly, objects to fall from the hands, or the legs to lose strength, with falling and potential injury; usually not associated with loss of consciousness.Close muscles suddenly lose strength. The eyelids may droop, the head may nod, and the person may drop things and often falls to the ground. These seizures are also called "drop attacks" or "drop seizures." The person usually remains conscious...

Another name for this type of seizure is "akinetic" (a-kin-ET-ik), which means "without movement."

Benign Rolandic Epilepsy ::A typical attack involves twitching, numbness, or tingling of the child's face or tongue (a partial seizure), which often interferes with speech and may cause drooling...

Childhood Absence Epilepsy :The seizures of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) are usually staring spells during which the child is not aware or responsive...

Clonic Seizures :Clonic seizures consist of rhythmic jerking movements of the arms and legs, sometimes on both sides of the body...

Complex Partial Seizures :These seizures usually start in a small area of the temporal lobe or frontal lobe of the brain. They quickly involve other areas of the brain that affect alertness and awareness...

Frontal Lobe Epilepsy :When areas that control movement (called motor areas) are affected, abnormal movements occur on the opposite side of the body. Seizures beginning in motor areas can cause weakness or the inability to use certain muscles, such as the muscles that allow someone to speak...

Febrile Seizures :Children aged 3 months to 5 years may have tonic-clonic seizures when they have a high fever. These are called febrile seizures (usually pronounced FEB-rile) and occur in 2% to 5% of all children...
- Complex Febrile : * Age, neurological status before the illness, and fever are the same as for simple febrile seizure.
* This seizure is either focal or prolonged (ie, >15 min), or multiple seizures occur in close succession.
- Symptomatic Febrile : * Age and fever are the same as for simple febrile seizure.
* The child has a preexisting neurological abnormality or acute illness.

Hypothalamic Hamartoma :This syndrome consists of
* abnormally early puberty
* partial seizures with laughing as a frequent feature
* increased irritability and aggression between the seizures.
The partial seizures may be simple or complex and there may be secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures...

Infantile Spasms :Infantile spasms consist of a sudden jerk followed by stiffening. Often the arms are flung out as the knees are pulled up and the body bends forward ("jackknife seizures")...

Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy :People with JME have myoclonic seizures (quick little jerks of the arms, shoulder, or occasionally the legs), usually in the early morning, soon after awakening. The myoclonic jerks sometimes are followed by a tonic-clonic seizure. Absence seizures also may occur...

Juvenile Absence Epilepsy :All children with juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) have absence seizures but usually they are limited to a few episodes per day. Tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures are usually the symptom that brings the patient to the doctor...

Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome :The Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is very serious but uncommon. Three basic features define it:
* Generalized seizures of more than one type, which are difficult to control
* Slowness of intellectual growth and associated personality difficulties
* A specific EEG abnormality called a slow spike-and-wave pattern, found when the child is awake, and generalized fast rhythms during sleep...

Landau-Kleffner Syndrome :In the typical case, a child between 3 and 7 years of age experiences language problems, with or without seizures. The language disorder may start suddenly or slowly. It usually affects the child's understanding of spoken language the most...

Myoclonic Seizures :brief, shock-like jerks of a muscle or a group of muscles. "Myo" means muscle and "clonus" (KLOH-nus) means rapidly alternating contraction and relaxation—jerking or twitching—of a muscle...

Mitochondrial Disorders :The metabolic disorders involving the mitochondria affect different parts of the body, including muscle and brain...

Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsies :Progressive myoclonic epilepsies feature a combination of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures. Unsteadiness, muscle rigidity, and mental deterioration are often also present...

Psychogenic Seizures :Events that look like seizures but are not due to epilepsy...

Reflex Epilepsies :Reflex epilepsies are a group of epilepsy syndromes in which a certain stimulus brings on seizures...

Rasmussen's Syndrome :is associated with slowly progressive neurologic deterioration and seizures in children. Seizures are often the first problem to appear...

Simple Partial Seizures :They are remarkably different from person to person, depending on the part of the brain where they begin. The one thing they all have in common is that the person remains alert and can remember what happens...

Secondarily Generalized Seizures :Seizures of this kind start as a partial seizure, that is, they start in one limited area of the brain. The forms they take vary as much as other partial seizures...

Temporaral Lobe Epilepsy :The features of seizures beginning in the temporal lobe can be extremely varied, but certain patterns are common...

Tonic-clonic Seizures :This type is what most people think of when they hear the word "seizure." An older term for them is "grand mal...

Tonic Seizures :Muscle "tone" is the muscle's normal tension at rest. In a "tonic" seizure, the tone is greatly increased and the body, arms, or legs make sudden stiffening movements. Consciousness is usually preserved...

- List originally posted by Solis -

Psychomotor Seizures

Psychomotor Seizures (Complex Partials) :These seizures usually start in a small area of the temporal lobe or frontal lobe of the brain. They quickly involve other areas of the brain that affect alertness and awareness...

Limbic Epilepsy :Limbic epilepsy is seizure foci arising in limbic brain areas; limbic areas are regions in the temporal and frontal lobes, which are involved with memory and emotion...

Partial-Onset Seizures :Partial-onset seizures begin in 1 focal area of the cerebral cortex. Partial-onset seizures are further classified as simple partial seizures, complex partial seizures, or secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures...

Generalized-Onset Seizures :Generalized-onset seizures have an onset recorded simultaneously in both cerebral hemispheres. Generalized-onset seizures are classified into 6 major categories: (1) absence seizures, (2) tonic seizures, (3) clonic seizures, (4) myoclonic seizures, (5) primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and (6) atonic seizures...

Status Epilepticus :Any seizure lasting longer than 5 minutes based on natural history data that show typical generalized convulsive seizures that resolve spontaneously after 3-5 minutes...

Petit Mal (Absence Seizure) :Absence seizures are brief episodes of staring.During the seizure, awareness and responsiveness are impaired. People who have them usually don't realize when they've had one. There is no warning before a seizure, and the person is completely alert immediately afterward...

Abdominal Epilepsy :Abdominal epilepsy describes a group of gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances caused by epileptiform seizure activity seen on EEG tracing...

Akinetic Seizures (Atonic Seizure) ::Muscle "tone" is the muscle's normal tension. "Atonic" (a-TON-ik) means "without tone,...

Aura :A warning before a seizure; a simple partial seizure occuring within seconds before a complex partial or secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure, or it may occur alone; also a warning before a migraine headache.

Autonomic Seizures (Simple Partial) :These common seizures may include strange or unpleasant sensations in the stomach, chest, or head...

Massive Bilateral Myoclonus :Massive myoclonus are a generalized seizure type that consists of a single or a burst of axial jerks affecting the whole body although mainly the upper limbs...

Catamenial Epilepsy :refers to seizure exacerbation in relation to the menstrual cycle. Traditionally, the term has been used to refer to seizure exacerbation at the time of menstruation...

Drop Seizures (Atonic Seizure) :Muscle "tone" is the muscle's normal tension. "Atonic" (a-TON-ik) means "without tone...

Emotional Seizures :A type of simple partial seizure which manifests as exaggerated emotions without cause, most commonly fear, though joy, rage, anger or sadness may also occur.

Focal Seizures (Partial Seizures) :Focal seizures (also called partial seizures) are seizures which are characterized by:
* preserved consciousness in simple focal seizures
* impaired consciousness (dream-like) in complex focal seizures
* experience of unusual feelings or sensations
* sudden and inexplainable feelings of joy, anger, sadness, or nausea
* altered sense of hearing, smelling, tasting, seeing, or feeling things that are not real, having a change or loss of consciousness (may appear dream-like),
* strange repetitious behaviors such as blinks, twitches, and mouth movements.

Gelastic Seizures :Gelastic seizures are brief outbursts of emotion, usually in the form of a laugh or a cry...

Grand Mal (Tonic-Clonic) :As implied by the name, they combine the characteristics of tonic seizures and clonic seizures...

Jacksonian March :Jacksonian seizures are initiated with abnormal electrical activity within the primary motor cortex. They are unique in that they travel through the primary motor cortex in succession...

Lafora Disease :a hereditary disease characterised by the presence of inclusion bodies, known as Lafora bodies, within the cells of neurons, heart, liver, muscle, and skin...

Motor Seizures (Simple Partial) :These cause a change in muscle activity. For example, a person may have abnormal movements such as jerking of a finger or stiffening of part of the body...

Multifocal Seizures :Whilst most seizures can be neatly split into partial and generalized, there exists some that don't fit. For example: the seizure may be generalized only within one hemisphere. Alternatively there may be many focal points (multifocal seizures) that are distributed in a symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern.

Neonatal Seizures :Most seizures in the neonate are focal, although generalized seizures have been described in rare instances...

Nocturnal Seizures :Nocturnal seizures are usually tonic-clonic. They might occur just after a person has fallen asleep, just before waking, during daytime sleep, or while in a state of drowsiness. People who experience nocturnal seizures may find it difficult to wake up or to stay awake...

Photosensitive Epilepsy :seizures occur when an individual is exposed to visual stimuli, usually flashes of light of a particular frequency. In other reflex epilepsies, seizures may be provoked by auditory, olfactory, or vestibular stimuli...

Pseudoseizures (Psychogenic Seizures) :Events that look like seizures but are not due to epilepsy are called "nonepileptic seizures." A common type is described as psychogenic (si-ko-JEN-ik), which means beginning in the mind...

Sensory Seizures (Simple Seizures) :These cause changes in any one of the senses. People with sensor seizures may smell or taste things that aren't there; hear clicking, ringing, or a person's voice when there is no actual sound...

Subtle Seizures :Manifestations include:
* Ocular phenomena (staring, blinking, eye deviation, eye opening)
* Oral phenomena (mouthing, chewing, sucking, smiling)
* Autonomic phenomena (change in blood pressure and/or heart rate, pallor, increased salivation or secretions; central apnoea occurring rarely as the only seizure manifestation)
* Fragmentary body movements (limb posturing, swimming, pedalling)...

Sylvan Seizures (Rolandic Epilepsy) :A typical attack involves twitching, numbness, or tingling of the child's face or tongue (a partial seizure), which often interferes with speech and may cause drooling...

Visual Reflex Seizures :Visual reflex seizures induced by complex stimuli may be triggered by patterned and flashing displays that are now ubiquitous. The seizures may be clinically generalized, but unilateral and bilateral myoclonic attacks also may be triggered...

Withdrawal Seizures :This type of seizure is seen when certain medications, such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines, are stopped abruptly...Withdrawal seizures are common when a person with alcoholism is trying to quit drinking...

Re: Psychomotor Seizures

Epilepsia Partialis Continua :EPC is a form of partial SE(Status Epilepticus) with simple motor manifestations that are maintained for over 1 hour, with clonic activity restricted to one body part and recurring at fairly regular intervals. The following modifying factors apply:

* Motor activity often is modified by sensory stimuli.

* Frequency is usually 0.1-6 Hz.

* An occurrence of EPC can continue for long periods of time (sometimes years) without spreading, although spread can occur at times.

* EPC often is associated with postictal or interictal weakness.

* Clinical evolution distinguishes 2 forms (ie, Bancaud type 1, Bancaud type 2): type 1 is usually symptomatic of a focal brain lesion, and the prognosis is the same as that of the associated lesion; type 2 is associated with progressive, idiopathic, neurological deterioration, usually in the form of Rasmussen encephalitis...

Re: Re: Psychomotor Seizures

Eclampsia :Convulsions are the other most common feature of this syndrome. Convulsions are the most common neurologic manifestation in eclampsia because the occurrence of convulsions confirms the diagnosis of eclampsia. Convulsions are usually generalized tonic-clonic in nature. Usually a brief single seizure occurs. Multiple seizures can also occur; however, status epilepticus is rare. Partial seizures or complex partial seizures can also occur. The seizures can occur prepartum, intrapartum, or postpartum. If the seizure occurs postpartum, it usually occurs within the first 24 hours after delivery; however, late postpartum eclamptic convulsions are by no means rare and have been reported as late as 23 days postpartum.

Re: Re: Re: Psychomotor Seizures

Benign Neonatal Seizures :Benign neonatal convulsions are defined as seizures with onset after birth through day 28 in an otherwise healthy child with no other known medical or neurological problems. Such cases may be familial or isolated. Psychomotor development should be normal for a full-term or near full-term infant with benign convulsions. Between seizures, findings on neurologic examination should be normal. Clinically, the seizures are frequent and brief, occasionally occurring many times within a day. The episodes usually resolve within days but may continue for several months and have no neurological sequelae. The occurrence of status epilepticus is common in benign idiopathic neonatal convulsions (BINC) but is uncommon in benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC). Because BINC is a diagnosis of exclusion, it is nearly always made in retrospect, when the seizures spontaneously resolve and the infant is found to have neurologically normal development...

Re: Re: Re: Re: Psychomotor Seizures

Supplementary Motor Area Seizures(SMA) :Typically involve unilateral or asymmetric bilateral tonic posturing; may be associated with facial grimacing, vocalization, or speech arrest; seizures frequently preceded by a somatosensory aura; complex automatisms such as kicking, laughing, or pelvic thrusting may be present; responsiveness often preserved.

Primary Motor Cortex Seizures :Usually simple partial motor seizures with clonic or myoclonic movements and preserved consciousness; jacksonian spread to adjacent cortical areas may occur, and secondary generalization is frequent; speech arrest and contralateral adversive or dystonic posturing may be present.

Medial Frontal, Cingulate Gyrus, Orbifrontal or Frontopolar Seizures :Complex behavioral events characterized by motor agitation and gestural automatisms; viscerosensory symptoms and strong emotional feelings often described; motor activity repetitive and may involve pelvic thrusting, pedaling, or thrashing, often accompanied by vocalizations or laughter/crying; seizures often bizarre and may be diagnosed incorrectly as psychogenic.

Dorsolateral Cortex Seizures :Tonic posturing or clonic movements often associated with either contralateral head and eye deviation, or less commonly, ipsilateral head turn.

Operculum Seizures :Swallowing, salivation, mastication, epigastric aura, fear, and speech arrest often associated with clonic facial movements; gustatory hallucinations also may occur.

Nonlocalized Frontal Seizures :Rare, manifesting as brief staring spells accompanied by generalized spike/wave on EEG, which may be difficult to distinguish from primarily generalized absence seizures; may present as generalized tonic-clonic seizures without obvious focal onset.

Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy :Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy - Autosomal dominant inheritance; seizures occur mainly during sleep; characterized by marked motor manifestations, including dystonic posturing, jerking, bending, and rocking; difficult to distinguish from parasomnias .

Re: Re: Re: Re: Re: Psychomotor Seizures

Posttraumatic Seizure :any seizure that occurs as a sequel to brain injury. If the seizures occur within 24 hours of the injury, they are called immediate PTS. A PTS that occurs within 1 week of injury are termed early PTS, and a seizure that occurs more than 1 week after injury are termed late PTS. About 20% of people who have 1 late PTS never have any more.The seizures are usually partial (focal) or generalized tonic-clonic. Often, both types coexist. Most early PTS are partial seizures, whereas most late PTS, especially when part of PTE(Posttraumatic Epilepsy), are generalized and either primary or secondary.

Post Traumatic Epilesy :Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) refers to a recurrent seizure disorder, the cause of which is believed to be injury to the brain. This injury can be a result of head trauma or a sequel to an operation on the brain. The term PTE must be differentiated from the term posttraumatic seizure (PTS), which signifies any seizure that occurs as a sequel to brain injury. The seizures are usually partial (focal) or generalized tonic-clonic. Often, both types coexist. Most early PTS are partial seizures, whereas most late PTS, especially when part of PTE, are generalized and either primary or secondary...

Partial Epilepsies :Partial

Partial Epilepsies :Partial epilepsies are epileptic disorders in which seizure semiology or findings at investigation disclose localized origin of seizures...

Benign Childhood Epilepsy :Epilepsy is defined as 2 or more unprovoked seizures. The various types of epilepsy differ in many aspects, including (1) age of onset...

Benign Familial Neonatal Convulsions :Seizures occur in otherwise healthy neonates. Onset is usually in the first week of life; in 80% of patients, onset is on day 2 or 3 of life. However, seizures can occur any time in the neonatal period until age 3 months. Seizures may occur during sleep or wakefulness...

Benign Idiopathic Neonatal Convulsions :BINC represents about 4% of neonatal convulsions. However, the literature reports a significant discrepancy regarding the existence (ignored) and incidence (up to 38% of convulsions in neonates) of this syndrome...

Benign Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy :Of all the myoclonic epilepsies, BMEI (also known as benign infantile myoclonic epilepsy) is distinguished by its appearance early in life and its favorable prognosis...

Benign Partial Epilepsy with Complex Partial Seizures :These seizures often occur in clusters and are manifested in the following ways:
* Arrested motion
* Staring spells
* Decreased responsiveness
* Automatisms with mild convulsive movements...

Benign Epilepsy of Childhood with Centrotemporal Spikes : BECCT is also known as lingual epilepsy, sylvian seizures, benign centrotemporal epilepsy, and benign rolandic epilepsy...

Benign Partial Epilepsy of Childhood with Occipital Paroxysms :This is also called Panayiotopoulos syndrome and benign occipital epilepsy of childhood [BOE]).It is characterized by seizures that start with visual symptoms, which often are followed by hemiclonic seizures or automatisms and, in some cases, migrainous headaches...
*Panayiotopoulos Syndrome :seizures comprise an unusual constellation of autonomic, mainly emetic, symptoms often with unilateral deviation of eyes and other more conventional symptoms. Seizures are nocturnal in about two thirds of patients. The full emetic triad (ie, nausea, retching, vomiting) culminates in vomiting in 74% of seizures...
*Gastaut Type :clinical semiology is complex and is characterized by ictal and postictal symptoms. Visual symptoms include (1) transient, partial, or complete loss of vision, (2) elementary or complex visual hallucinations, and (3) visual illusions (eg, micropsia, metamorphosis)...

Benign Epilepsy with Affective Symptoms(Benign Complex Partial Epilepsy) :...associated sometimes with chewing, swallowing, distressed laughter, arrest of speech, salivation, moaning, or autonomic manifestations (eg, pallor, sweating, abdominal pain)...

Re: Partial Epilepsies :Partial

Status Epilepticus :Any seizure lasting longer than 5 minutes based on natural history data that show typical generalized convulsive seizures that resolve spontaneously after 3-5 minutes...

Generalized Convulsive SE :The most frequent and potentially dangerous type of SE is generalized convulsive SE...

Subtle SE : It is considered the most severe clinical stage of generalized convulsive SE, and is characterized by a dissociation between the electrical brain activity and the predicted motoric response of generalized convulsive SE...

Nonconvulsive SE :Nonconvulsive SE is divided into 2 categories, absence SE and complex partial SE. Differentiating these subtypes is important, since they indicate major differences in treatment, etiology, and prognosis...
*Absence SE :A clear change in the level of consciousness is observed. Most patients are not comatose but lethargic and confused, with decreased spontaneity and slow speech...
*Complex Partial SE :Complex partial SE is rare. Although many cases of prolonged complex partial SE have been described without long-term neurologic sequelae, negative outcomes can occur...
*Simple Partial SE :Simple partial SE consists of seizures localized to a discrete area of cerebral cortex, and it does not alter consciousness. Because this form is rare, no good studies have been done to determine its incidence...

Re: Re: Partial Epilepsies :Partial

Angelman Syndrome :AS is characterised by intellectual and developmental delay, speech impediment, sleep disturbance, unstable jerky gait, seizures, hand flapping movements, frequent laughter/smiling and usually a happy demeanour...

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) :is a syndromic autosomal dominant disorder where afflicted individuals can exhibit numerous epilepsy phenotypes.There are at least five types of GEFS+...

Rasmussen's Encephalitis :also Chronic Focal Encephalitis (CFE), is a rare, progressive neurological disorder, characterized by frequent and severe seizures, loss of motor skills and speech, hemiparesis (paralysis on one side of the body)...

Batten Disease :A rare, fatal, inherited disease of the nervous system (neurodegenerative disorder) that begins in childhood.Early symptoms of this disorder usually appear between the ages of 5 and 10, when parents or physicians may notice that a child has begun to develop vision problems or seizures.

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) :an immune mediated disease of brain. Major symptoms are fever, headache, drowsiness, seizures and coma...

Aicardi Syndrome :a congenital disorder thought to result from an abnormality of the X chromosome and characterized by absence of the corpus callosum, retinal abnormalities, and seizures (often infantile spasms). It is X-linked dominant...

Alpers' Disease :also called progressive infantile poliodystrophy, is a progressive degenerative disease of the central nervous system that occurs in infants and children.First signs of the disease, which include intractable seizures ...

Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) :A rare genetic disease which causes intermittent paralysis and progressive mental retardation starting in childhood. The severe form is indicated by the usual paralysis, mental impairment, gait and balance impairment, excessive sweating, and changes in body temperature. Seizures and movement disorders can also be present...

Re: Re: Re: Partial Epilepsies :Partial

Pattern - Sensitive Epilepsies (Reflex) :Seizures are produced by particular visual patterns. These triggers may consist of circles, stripes, or other patterns, usually of high contrast. Oscillating or moving patterns are more highly epileptogenic...

Scotosensitive Seizures (Reflex) :Seizures produced by a reduction in light intensity...

Fixation-Off Seizures (Reflex) :Seizures produced by the removal of visual fixation...

Musicogenic Seizures (Reflex) :The term for a condition in which seizures are produced by tones or music...

Primary Reading Epilepsy (Reflex) :In individuals with this condition, reading induces seizures. Jaw jerks typically occur...

Seizures Induced By Thinking (Reflex) :Cognitive processes have been reported to induce seizures in susceptible persons. Initially described during the performance of mathematical calculations...

Eating Epilepsy (Reflex) :Seizures may occur at the sight or smell of food, at the beginning of eating a meal, or postprandially...

Re: Re: Re: Re: Partial Epilepsies :Partial

Alice In Wonderland Syndrome (Micropsia) :People with Alice in Wonderland Syndrome (or AIWS) feel that their body is changing, because of migraines and headaches. They don't just see themselves changing in size, though, but they also see other people, animals and objects look larger or smaller than they actually are. They can also feel that their hearing and sense of touch have changed. Like what happens to Alice in the beginning of the book, some people with epilepsy who also have AIWS can feel like they are falling down a hole...

Musigenic Seizures :Musicogenic seizures are a reflex epilepsy triggered by certain types of music or even specific frequencies of pitch for which the person's brain has a low threshold or tolerance. These sounds trigger focal epileptiform EEG discharges in cerebral areas...

Brain Abscess :The most frequent presenting symptoms are headache, drowsiness, confusion, seizures, hemiparesis or speech difficulties together with fever with a rapidly progressive course...

Brain Shiver :"Brain shivers" are said to defy description for whomever has not experienced them, but the most common themes are of a sudden "jolt", likened to an electric shock, apparently occurring or originating in the brain itself, with associated disorientation for a few seconds. It is sometimes accompanied by brief tinnitus and vertigo like feelings. Immediately following this shock is a light-headedness which may last for up to ten seconds. Another description is that it is like a bug zapper in stereo traveling back and forth across the back of the head, accompanied by a taste of aluminum foil in the mouth. It is thought to be a form of neuro-epileptiform activity...

Cerebellar Hypoplasia :Cerebellar hypoplasia is a developmental disorder characterized by the incomplete or underdevelopment of the cerebellum. It may be genetic or occur sporadically. Cerebellar hypoplasia may be caused by thyroid abnormalities, environmental influences such as drugs and chemicals or viral infections or stroke. In infancy, symptoms may include developmental delay, hypotonia, ataxia, seizures, mental retardation and involuntary eye movements (nystagmus)...

Alien Hand Syndrome :(anarchic hand or Dr. Strangelove syndrome) is an unusual neurological disorder, a form of apraxia in which one of the sufferer's hands seems to take on a mind of its own. AHS is best documented in cases where a person has had the two hemispheres of his brain surgically separated, a procedure sometimes used to relieve the symptoms of extreme cases of epilepsy. It also occurs in some cases after other brain surgery, strokes, or infections...

Encephalitis :Patients with encephalitis suffer from fever, headache, photophobia. The patients could also suffer from weakness, seizure, and less commonly, stiffness of the neck...

Episodic Ataxia :(EA) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sporadic bouts of ataxia (severe discoordination) with or without myokymia (continuous muscle movement). Typically, episodic ataxia presents as bouts of ataxia induced by startle, stress, or exertion. Some patients also have continuous tremors of various motor groups, known as myokymia. Other patients have nystagmus, vertigo, tinnitus, diplopia or seizures...

Familial Hemiplegic Migraine :an autosomal dominant classical migraine subtype that typically includes hemiparesis (weakness of half the body) during the aura phase. It can be accompanied by other symptoms, such as ataxia, coma and epileptic seizures...

Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis :a central nervous system disease caused by certain species of amoeba, especially Balamuthia mandrillaris. GAE can present with: focal paralysis, seizures, brainstem symptoms, and other neruological problems...

Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal

Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (ADNFLE) :This is a recently described syndrome that appears to be a genetic localization-related epilepsy.Seizures are nocturnal and occur in clusters, mimicking parasomnias. They mostly are brief tonic seizures and rare tonic-clonic convulsions, often preceded by a nonspecific aura...

Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy :Seizures typically are complex partial with automatisms, often preceded by a simple partial phase with sensory symptoms (ie, aura).
Auras commonly observed in temporal lobe epilepsy are epigastric (abdominal) and psychic auras, including déja-vu or jamais-vu and fear.

Neocortical Seizures :Neocortical seizures may be simple partial or complex partial, with symptoms depending on the area of cortex affected. Frontal discharges can spread rapidly and mimic "primary" generalized spike-wave complexes. This is referred to as "secondary bilateral synchrony" (with interictal epileptiform discharges that appear to be generalized but are in reality "secondarily generalized" focal discharges)...

Idiopathic Epilepsies :While generally idiopathic means "of unknown cause," idiopathic epilepsies are not truly of unknown cause. This terminology most likely will be corrected in the upcoming classification system of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Idiopathic epilepsies are determined genetically and have no apparent structural cause, with seizures as the only manifestation of the condition.

Localization - Related Epilepsies :Because of dramatic differences in electroclinical semiology and management, localization-related epilepsies usually are divided into mesiotemporal and neocortical. The most common localization-related epilepsy in adults is mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy, but, in neonates and young children, this is less common than neocortical epilepsy...

Janz Syndrome (JME) :A primary generalized epilepsy syndrome, usually beginning between ages 5 to 17 years, characterized by myoclonic (muscle-jerk) seizures and possibly also absence and tonic-clonic seizures; responds well to valproate...

Symptomatic Myoclonic Epilepsy :This is less frequent than the idiopathic (ie, cryptogenic) variety, and the age of onset is usually between a few months and 2-3 years. Clinical features include psychomotor retardation, and neuroimaging frequently demonstrates brain atrophy. Myoclonic jerks can occur alone, but they more commonly are associated with generalized clonic seizures. Rhythmic jerks can occur during sleep, with associated dystonic posturing during wakefulness. The prognosis for meaningful cognitive function is poor, although the myoclonic jerks may be controlled medically.

Cryptogenic Myoclonic Epilepsy :This group includes all patients with idiopathic seizures who display primarily recurrent myoclonic attacks. Some patients have infrequent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Most myoclonic seizures are axial, which sometimes results in falls.
The outcome in these patients is usually favorable, although about half the patients may have behavioral or cognitive dysfunction. This has sometimes been termed "benign myoclonic epilepsy."

Myoclonic Variant of Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome :All patients have myoclonic seizures associated with recurrent brief attacks of varying types.
Examples of these attacks include atonic seizures, atypical absence, partial seizures, and brief tonic seizures.
This is sometimes termed the myoclonic variant of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
The outcome is worse than in the cryptogenic myoclonic epilepsy group; more patients have cognitive dysfunction, and a significant proportion of those have severe mental retardation. However, the outcome is better than in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome...

Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy :Occurs in a significant proportion of severe childhood epilepsies. The age of onset of seizures is between 4 and 11 months, and the seizures are initially unilateral or generalized clonic movements (or rarely, generalized tonic-clonic movements).
*Seizures are usually long lasting, from 10-90 minutes in duration, and mostly associated with fever or minor infections.
*Myoclonic seizures appear by the second or third year and are often photosensitive.
*Atypical absence seizures may be seen without an electrographic correlate.
*Initially, development may be normal; later, cognitive delays become evident and are usually moderate to severe. Most patients have fluctuating ataxia and erratic myoclonus.
*The myoclonic seizures may resolve after a few years, but other seizures tend to be persistent...

Neonatal Myoclonic Epilepsy :This syndrome presents in the first 4 weeks of life with prominent myoclonic seizures.
*The seizures usually result from a severe metabolic disorder, including that associated with elevated glycine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), although they may be associated with any condition that produces severe brain dysfunction.
*Distinguishing neonatal myoclonic epilepsy from benign neonatal sleep myoclonus is important. The latter condition is seen in healthy infants and occurs only in sleep...

Early Myoclonic Encephalopathy :Myoclonic seizures can occur in many types of epilepsy; but in infancy and early childhood, they may occur as the dominant seizure type. The outlook and treatment of this condition differ from those of the more severe Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, which also may have myoclonic seizures as an important component. At times in this heterogenous group, nonmyoclonic seizures may dominate the clinical picture...

Myoclonic SE :Myoclonic seizures are characterized by quick, often repetitive, jerks that randomly involve the limbs.
*Seizures often are repetitive and, in some cases, may be unabated for lengthy periods.
*Some patients with myoclonic epilepsies may sustain repetitive myoclonus that persists for days with or without altered consciousness...

Re: Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal

Here is some information on Simple Partial Seizures:

History: The ICES lists 18 categories of SPS . All types of SPS can be seen with subsequent complex partial secondarily generalized seizures . The suspicion of SPS is based on the history of typical, reproducible patterns as outlined here.

* Motor simple partial seizures

o Clonic discharges in the sensorimotor cortex cause jerky, rhythmic movements that may remain restricted to one body segment or spread by “jacksonian march.”

o Benign focal epilepsy of childhood accounts for 15-25% of childhood epilepsy and eventually remits by age 16 years.

+ Typical seizures are simple and motor, affect the face or arm, and occur soon after falling asleep or awakening.

+ As it usually remits by age 16 years, this syndrome does not always require treatment.

o Another subtype, epilepsia partialis continua (ie, Kojewnikoff syndrome) , includes stereotypical periodic to semiperiodic clonic activity that may persist for years and is often refractory to treatment.

+ Clonic jerking usually involves the thumb or great toe, and may or may not spread to other body parts.

+ This activity has been associated with stroke, tumor, trauma, hypoxia, Rasmussen encephalitis, syndrome of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke (MELAS), subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), and adult nonketotic hyperglycinemia.

o Tonic-supplementary motor area (SMA) and premotor region discharges produce sustained contractions and unusual postures of a limb.

+ In 72% of cases SMA seizures are not associated with impaired consciousness.

+ Versive-smooth or jerky, tonic contractions of head and eye muscles, usually on the side contralateral to the discharge, often are followed by a secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure.

+ Phonatory activation of the primary or supplementary motor cortex produces vocalizations, speech arrest, or aphasia.

* Sensory simple partial seizures

o Somatosensory-primary sensory cortex seizures usually elicit positive or negative sensations contralateral to the discharge.

o Symptoms associated with seizures from the postcentral gyrus include tingling, numbness, pain, heat, cold, agnosia, phantom sensations, or sensations of movement.

o Abdominal pain usually originates from the temporal lobe, and genital pain from the mesial parietal sensory cortex.

o The posterior parietal cortex is the likely origin of limb agnosia.

o Supplemental sensory-secondary sensory cortex seizures may have ipsilateral or bilateral positive or negative sensations or vague axial or diffuse sensations.

o Visual-calcarine cortex discharges produce elemental hallucinations including scintillations, scotomata, colored lights, visual field deficits, or field inversion.

o The visual association cortex is the probable location of origin of complex visual hallucinations and photopsias.

o Auditory SPS from the auditory cortex typically are perceived as simple sounds, rather than words or music.

o Olfactory-uncinate seizures originate from the orbitofrontal cortex and the mesial temporal area. Perceived odors are usually unpleasant, often with a burning quality.

o Gustatory seizures usually are associated with temporal lobe origin, although the insula and parietal operculum also have been implicated. Perceived tastes are typically unpleasant, often with a metallic component.

o Vestibular seizures originate from various areas, including frontal and temporal-parietal-occipital junction. Symptoms include vertigo, a tilting sensation, and vague dizziness.

o Psychic SPS arise predominantly from the temporal and limbic region, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus. Perceptual hallucinations or illusions are usually complex, visual or auditory, and are rarely bimodal.

+ Includes the déj - vu and jamais vu phenomena

+ Emotional: Fear is usual, but SPS can elicit happiness, sexual arousal, anger, and similar responses.

+ Cognitive: These responses include feelings of depersonalization, unreality, forced thinking, or feelings that may defy description.

* Autonomic simple partial seizures

o Abdominal sensation phenomena

+ These are common in mesial temporal epilepsy but can arise from the operculum and occipital region.

+ Symptoms include nausea, pain, hunger, warmth, and “epigastric rising” sensations, and may be associated with piloerection (ie, gooseflesh).

o Cardiovascular sensations

+ The most common cardiac manifestation of any seizure is sinus tachycardia with arrhythmias, with bradycardia occurring infrequently.

+ Some patients have chest pain or a sensation of palpitation that mimics cardiac disease.

+ Respiratory inhibition has been reported with electrical stimulation of the temporal regions.

o Pupillary symptoms - Miosis, mydriasis, hippus, and unilateral pupillary dilatation

o Urogenital symptoms

+ Seizures from the superior portion of the posterior central gyrus can result in genital sensations, while sexual auras arise more from the limbic or temporal regions.

+ Ictal orgasms have been reported, although rarely, in association with seizures arising from various cerebral locations.

o Other autonomic symptoms - Rarely perspiration, lacrimation, ictal enuresis, or flushing

* Postictal neurological deficits can occur after an SPS as a negative manifestation of the function affected by the seizure (eg, Todd paralysis).

Physical: The physical examination may show subtle or obvious neurological focality.

* Immediately following a SPS, the focality may become more pronounced owing to postictal inhibition (eg, Todd paralysis).

* If an examination is performed during a SPS, no impairment of awareness or responsiveness is observed.

o Preservation of awareness implies that a person is able to recount simple events that happen during the ictus. This is best established by giving a specific, uncommon 2-syllable word to the patient during the SPS and asking for its recall soon after the seizure has resolved.

o Preservation of responsiveness implies that a person is able to carry out simple commands or directed volitional actions.

o Responsiveness may appear to be impaired because of interference by the motor manifestations of the SPS.

o This is best established by asking the patient to perform simple, unilateral and bilateral neurological functions during the SPS.

o If the patient is unable to perform a task because of the manifestations of the SPS, recollection of the instructions implies responsiveness was preserved.

* Motor, sensory, special sensory, psychic, and autonomic manifestations may begin in a small anatomical area and spread to a larger area of the body. This has been termed as “jacksonian march,” and it typically progresses along contiguous parts of the body in a reproducible pattern.

Sleep Disorders

Sleep Disorders (Nonepileptic unless specified)

Cataplexy :a medical condition which often affects people who have narcolepsy, a disorder whose principal signs are EDS (Excessive Daytime Sleepiness), sleep attacks, and disturbed night-time sleep. Cataplexy is sometimes confused with epilepsy, where a series of flashes or other stimuli cause superficially similar seizures...

Narcolepsy :a neurological condition most characterized by Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS). A narcoleptic will most likely experience disturbed nocturnal sleep, confused with insomnia, and disorder of REM or rapid eye movement sleep. It is a type of dyssomnia...Narcolepsy is often mistaken for depression, epilepsy, or the side effects of medications...

Hypersomnia :also known as excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), is excessive amount of sleepiness...Medical conditions including multiple sclerosis, depression, encephalitis, epilepsy, or obesity may contribute to the disorder...

Dyssomnia :primary disorders of initiating or maintaining sleep or of excessive sleepiness and are characterized by a disturbance in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep...

Sleep Paralysis :a condition characterized by temporary paralysis of the body shortly after waking up (known as hypnopompic paralysis) or, less often, shortly before falling asleep (known as hypnagogic paralysis)...Sleep paralysis occurs when the brain is awakened from a REM state into essentially a normal fully awake state, but the bodily paralysis is still occurring. This causes the person to be fully aware, but unable to move...Many people who commonly enter sleep paralysis also suffer from narcolepsy. However, various studies suggest that many or most people will experience sleep paralysis at least once or twice in their lives...

Hypnogogia & Hypnopompia :the experiences a person can go through in the hypnagogic (or hypnogogic) state, the period of falling asleep. Hypnopompia are the experiences a person may go through in the hypnopompic state, the period of waking up...An experience of the hypnagogic state is not an uncommon occurrence with 30 to 40 percent of people experiencing it at least once in their lives.[citation needed] However, it could be a sign of a sleep disorder, such as narcolepsy and insomnia, or associated with temporal lobe epilepsy...

Automatic Behavior :the spontaneous production of often purposeless verbal or motor behavior without conscious self-control or self-censorship. This condition can be observed in a variety of contexts, including schizophrenia, psychogenic fugue, complex partial seizure, epilepsy, narcolepsy or in response to a traumatic event. The individual does not recall the behavior...

Nocturnal Myoclonus :Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD), also called nocturnal myoclonus, is a sleep disorder where the patient moves limbs involuntarily during sleep and has symptoms or problems related to the movement...
Approximately 80-90% of people with Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) also have PLMD, Periodic Limb Movement Disorder, which causes slow "jerks" or flexions of the affected body part. These occur during sleep (PLMS = Periodic Limb Movement while Sleeping) or while awake (PLMW - Periodic Limb Movement while Waking)...

Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome :a chronic disorder of sleep timing. People with DSPS tend to fall asleep at very late times, and also have difficulty waking up in the morning...People with DSPS tend to be extreme night owls. They feel most alert and say they function best and are most creative in the evening and at night. DSPS patients cannot simply force themselves to sleep early...There have been a few cases of DSPS developing into non 24-hour sleep-wake syndrome, a more severe and debilitating disorder in which the individual sleeps later each day...

Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Syndrome :In people with this disorder, the person's body essentially insists that the day is longer than 24 hours. This tends to not allow socially accepted sleeping patterns, and makes it difficult for the sufferer to sleep at "normal" times...Left untreated, non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome causes a person's sleep-wake cycle to change every day, the degree determined by how much over 24 hours the cycle lasts. The cycle may go around the clock, eventually returning to "normal" for one or two days before going "off" again...

Re: Sleep Disorders

Frontal Lobe Seizures :* Prominent speech disturbances - May indicate dominant hemisphere involvement

* Supplementary motor area (SMA) - Typically involve unilateral or asymmetric bilateral tonic posturing; may be associated with facial grimacing, vocalization, or speech arrest; seizures frequently preceded by a somatosensory aura; complex automatisms such as kicking, laughing, or pelvic thrusting may be present; responsiveness often preserved

* Primary motor cortex - Usually simple partial motor seizures with clonic or myoclonic movements and preserved consciousness; jacksonian spread to adjacent cortical areas may occur, and secondary generalization is frequent; speech arrest and contralateral adversive or dystonic posturing may be present

* Medial frontal, cingulate gyrus, orbitofrontal, or frontopolar regions - Complex behavioral events characterized by motor agitation and gestural automatisms; viscerosensory symptoms and strong emotional feelings often described; motor activity repetitive and may involve pelvic thrusting, pedaling, or thrashing, often accompanied by vocalizations or laughter/crying; seizures often bizarre and may be diagnosed incorrectly as psychogenic

* Dorsolateral cortex - Tonic posturing or clonic movements often associated with either contralateral head and eye deviation, or less commonly, ipsilateral head turn

* Operculum - Swallowing, salivation, mastication, epigastric aura, fear, and speech arrest often associated with clonic facial movements; gustatory hallucinations also may occur

* Nonlocalizable frontal seizures - Rare, manifesting as brief staring spells accompanied by generalized spike/wave on EEG, which may be difficult to distinguish from primarily generalized absence seizures; may present as generalized tonic-clonic seizures without obvious focal onset

* Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy - Autosomal dominant inheritance; seizures occur mainly during sleep; characterized by marked motor manifestations, including dystonic posturing, jerking, bending, and rocking; difficult to distinguish from parasomnias...

Re: Re: Sleep Disorders

Cataleptic Seizures :Catalepsy can be produced by conditions as varied as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy...Symptoms include: rigid body, rigid limbs, limbs staying in same position when moved, no response, loss of muscle control, and slowing down of bodily functions, such as breathing...

Geschwind Syndrome :also known as Waxman-Geschwind syndrome is a characteristic personality syndrome consisting of symptoms such as circumstantiality (excessive verbal output, stickiness, hypergraphia), altered sexuality (usually hyposexuality), and intensified mental life (deepened cognitive and emotional responses) is present in some epilepsy patients. There has also been recent suggestions to extend the list of symptoms to include things such as guilt and paranoia for example. This syndrome is particularly associated with temporal lobe epilepsy...

Paroxysm :an increase of symptoms or periodic attacks of a disease (such as malaria, asthma, migraine, trigeminal neuralgia, tachycardia, whooping cough, and epilepsy.)

Paroxysmal Attacks :short, frequent and stereotyped symptoms that can be observed in various clinical conditions. They are usually associated with Multiple Sclerosis, but they may also be observed in other disorders such as encephalitis, head trauma, stroke, asthma, trigeminal neuralgia, breath-holding spells, epilepsy and Behçet's disease...Exercise, tactile stimuli, hot water, anxiety and neck flexion may provoke paroxysmal attacks. Mostly reported paroxysmal attacks are painful tonic spasms dysarthria and ataxia, numbness and hemiparesis...

Reflex Anoxic Seizure :Condition of the brain where the child may become pale and limp and cease breathing, only to recover a short time later.Anoxic seizures are caused by a reflex asystole of the heart due to increased vagal responsiveness. They are non-epileptic.

Focal Neurologic Signs :also known as focal signs or focal CNS signs are perceptual or behavioral impairments which are caused by lesions in a particular area of the central nervous system...

GM2 Gangliosidoses :cause the body to store excess acidic fatty materials in tissues and cells, most notably in nerve cells. These disorders result from a deficiency of the enzyme beta-hexosaminidase...

Tay-Sachs Disease :Tay-Sachs and its variant forms are caused by a deficiency in the enzyme beta-hexosaminidase A...Symptoms begin by 6 months of age and include progressive loss of mental ability, dementia, decreased eye contact, increased startle reflex to noise, progressive loss of hearing leading to deafness, difficulty in swallowing, blindness, cherry-red spots in the retinas, and some paralysis. Seizures may begin in the child’s second year...

Sandhoff Disease :This is a severe form of Tay-Sachs disease. Onset usually occurs at the age of 6 months and is not limited to any ethnic group. Neurological symptoms may include progressive deterioration of the central nervous system, motor weakness, early blindness, marked startle response to sound, spasticity, myoclonus (shock-like contractions of a muscle), seizures, ...

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Over 40 seizures...

Hypergraphia :an overwhelming urge to write. It is not itself a disorder, but can be associated with temporal lobe changes in epilepsy and mania...

Cerebral Atrophy :In brain tissue, atrophy describes a loss of neurons and the connections between them...The pattern and rate of progression of cerebral atrophy depends on the disease involved. Diseases that cause cerebral atrophy include: ...epilepsy, in which lesions cause abnormal electrochemical discharges that result in seizures...

Cortical Dysplasia :a benign tumor which occurs when the infant brain is developing in the womb. Occasionally neurons will develop that are larger than normal in certain areas. This causes the signals sent through the neurons in these areas to misfire, which sends an incorrect signal. It is commonly found near the cerebral cortex and is associated with seizures ...

Focal Cortical Dysplasia :the most common cause of intractable epilepsy in children and is a frequent cause of epilepsy in adults. All forms of focal cortical dysplasia lead to disorganization of the normal structure of the cerebral cortex...

Lissencelphaly :literally means smooth brain, is a rare brain formation disorder characterized by the lack of normal convolutions (folds) in the brain...Symptoms of the disorder may include unusual facial appearance, difficulty swallowing, failure to thrive, and severe psychomotor retardation. Anomalies of the hands, fingers, or toes, muscle spasms, and seizures may also occur...

Microcephaly :a neurological disorder in which the circumference of the head is significantly smaller than average for the person's age and sex...Affected newborns generally have striking neurological defects and seizures...

Hydrocephaly :sometimes known as Water on the Brain, is a condition in which abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain causes increased intracranial pressure inside the skull. This is usually due to blockage of CSF outflow in the brain ventricles or in the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain...About one in four develops epilepsy...

Niemann-Pick Disease Type C :an inherited condition involving lipid metabolism (the breakdown and use of fats and cholesterol in the body) in which harmful amounts of lipids accumulate in the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow, and brain...Type C is characterized by onset in childhood, although infant and adult onsets are possible. Other signs include severe liver disease, breathing difficulties, developmental delay, seizures, increased muscle tone (dystonia), lack of coordination, problems with feeding, and an inability to move the eyes vertically...

Todd's Palsy :also known as Todd's paralysis is a neurological condition characterized by a brief period of transient (temporary) paralysis following a seizure. The paralysis - which may be partial or complete - generally occurs on one side of the body and usually subsides completely within 48 hours...

Tuberous Sclerosis :a rare, multi-system genetic disease that causes benign tumours to grow in the brain and on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin. A combination of symptoms may include seizures,...

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EEG Atlas: Localization-related Epilepsies :The International Classification of Epileptic Syndromes and Epilepsies (International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE], 1989) classifies the epilepsies along 2 dichotomies: partial (ie, localization-related) versus generalized, and idiopathic versus cryptogenic or symptomatic. This double dichotomy conveniently allows presentation of the epilepsy classification in a simple table, as follows...

EEG Atlas: Generalized Epilepsies : The International Classification of Epileptic Syndromes and Epilepsies (International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE], 1989) classifies the epilepsies along 2 dichotomies: partial (ie, localization-related) versus generalized, and idiopathic versus cryptogenic or symptomatic. This double dichotomy conveniently allows the epilepsy classification system to be presented in a simple table, as follows...

Pyridoxine-Dependant Seizures (PDS) :Although rare, pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) is a recognized cause of intractable seizures in neonates, psychomotor developmental delay, and, sometimes, death in untreated patients (Gupta, 2001; Baxter, 2001; Yoshikawa, 1999). Hunt et al first described PDS in 1954 (Gupta, 2001; Burd, 2000). Since then, fewer than 100 cases have been reported worldwide (Gupta, 2001; Yoshikawa, 1999). Later onset seizures due to pyridoxine deficiency have been reported (Gupta, 2001; Grillo, 2001). The 2 types of presentations are classic and atypical. The classic presentation consists of intractable seizures that appear within hours of birth and are resistant to conventional anticonvulsants. The seizures respond rapidly to administration of parenteral pyridoxine (Gupta, 2001). A trial of pyridoxine is recommended in all seizures that have no clear etiology and occur before the child is aged 18 months (Grillo, 2001)...

Epileptic and Epileptiform Encephalopathies :Recently, the ILAE Task Force on Classification and Terminology (Engel, 2001) proposed a modified diagnostic scheme for epileptic seizures and epilepsy that for the first time recognizes a distinct category for epileptic encephalopathies in which the epileptiform abnormalities may contribute to progressive dysfunction. This category includes the following: early myoclonic encephalopathy, Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, myoclonic status in nonprogressive encephalopathies, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, and epilepsy with continuous spikes during slow wave sleep (CSWS)...

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Adrenoleukodystrophy :The clinical presentation is largely dependent on the age of onset of the disease. The most severe type is the childhood cerebral form, which normally occurs in males between the ages of 5 and 10 and is characterized by failure to develop, seizures, ataxia, adrenal insufficiency, as well as degeneration of visual and auditory function. This form can also occur in adolescents and very rarely in adults...

Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum :a rare birth defect (congenital disorder) in which there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum. Agenesis of the corpus callosum occurs when the corpus callosum, the band of tissue connecting the two hemispheres of the brain, does not develop typically in utero...Other characteristics sometimes associated with callosal disorders include seizures, spasticity, early feeding difficulties and/or gastric reflux, hearing impairments, abnormal head and facial features, and mental retardation...

Alexander Disease :a slowly progressing and fatal neurodegenerative disease. It is a very rare inherited disorder mostly affecting infants and children, causing developmental delay and changes in physical characteristics.Delays in development of some physical, psychological and behavioral skills, progressive enlargement of the head (macrocephaly), seizures, spasticity, in some cases also hydrocephalus, dementia, clumsy movements...

Fahr's Syndrome :a rare, genetically dominant, inherited neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of calcium in areas of the brain that control movement, including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex...Symptoms of the disorder may include deterioration of motor function, pychosis dementia, seizures, headache, dysarthria (poorly articulated speech), spasticity (stiffness of the limbs) and spastic paralysis, eye impairments, and athetosis (involuntary, writhing movements)...

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Doose Syndrome

Doose Syndrome(Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy) :As described by Doose, this group of patients is supposed to share a genetic predisposition related to idiopathic generalized epilepsy and it was also called “centrencephalic myoclonic-astatic petit mal” (Doose et al 1970). Thus, it consists of an etiological concept, not of a syndrome with homogeneous electroclinical pattern. In fact, it comprises several subgroups, each subgroup consisting of an epilepsy syndrome. These subgroups are reported as “severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy” (Dravet et al 1992a), “benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy” (Dravet et al 1992b), and cases that begin later in childhood. Thus, series reported by Doose and coworkers include at least three different syndromes of myoclonic epilepsy...

Myoclonic-astatic epilepsy in a child with Sturge-Weber syndrome :A child with Sturge-Weber syndrome and a left occipital leptomeningeal angioma developed focal seizures at 6 years of age that responded initially to oxcarbazepine (Trileptal). After 7 months of seizure freedom, the patient developed typical myoclonic-astatic seizures associated with generalized electrographic discharges, which worsened as oxcarbazepine was increased...

Myoclonic-Astatic Seizures (Doose) :Doose described a group of children with myoclonic and astatic seizures, often in combination with absence, generalized tonic-clonic, and tonic seizures. In this syndrome, astatic seizures (defined as seizures during which the patient is unable to stand) occurred suddenly, without warning, and the children collapsed onto the floor as if their legs had been pulled from under them. No loss of consciousness was apparent...

Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy (Doose Syndrome) :Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy (MAE), or Doose Syndrome, is an epilepsy syndrome of early childhood that is often resistant to medication. For this reason, it can be difficult to treat. MAE is an idiopathic generalized epilepsy, meaning that there is no known cause for the seizures (idiopathic) and the seizures originate from all over the brain (generalized) as opposed to coming from one focal area...

Over 40 Types of Seizures...

Over 40 Types of Seizures...